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Cold sores, also called fever blisters, can show up anywhere on your body. They're most likely to appear on the outside of your mouth and lips, but you can also find them on your nose, cheeks, or fingers.

After the blisters form, you may notice that they break and ooze. A yellow crust or a scab builds up and eventually falls off, revealing new skin underneath.

The sores usually last 7 to 10 days and can spread to other people until they crust over completely.

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Colic is uncontrollable crying in an otherwise healthy baby. Your baby is considered colicky if he’s younger than 5 months old and cries for more than three hours in a row on three or more days a week for at least three weeks (phew!). Colic isn't a disease and won't cause your baby any long-term harm, but it's a tough thing to go through for babies and their parents.

If your baby is colicky, find more than 20 sanity-saving tips to help you deal with it in our article about coping with colic.

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Colon cleansing (also known as colon therapy) encompasses a number of alternative medical therapies claimed to remove nonspecific toxins from the colon and intestinal tract by removing any accumulations of feces. Colon cleansing may be branded colon hydrotherapy, a colonic or colonic irrigation. During the 2000s internet marketing and infomercials of oral supplements supposedly for colon cleansing increased.

Some forms of colon hydrotherapy use tubes to inject water, sometimes mixed with herbs or with other liquids, into the colon via the rectum using special equipment. Oral cleaning regimens use dietary fiber, herbs, dietary supplements, or laxatives. People who practice colon cleansing believe that accumulations of putrefied feces line the walls of the large intestine and that these accumulations harbor parasites or pathogenic gut flora, causing nonspecific symptoms and general ill-health. This "auto-intoxication" hypothesis is based on medical beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians and Greeks and was discredited in the early 20th century.

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The cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages from secretions, irritants, foreign particles and microbes. The cough reflex consists of three phases:
  • An inhalation
  • A forced exhalation against a closed glottis
  • A violent release of air from the lungs following the opening of the glottis, usually accompanied by a distinctive sound.
  • Cough can be either voluntary or involuntary. Frequent coughing usually indicates the presence of a disease. Coughing can be due to respiratory tract infection and can also be triggered by:
  • Choking
  • Smoking
  • Air pollution
  • Asthma
  • Gastro esophageal reflux disease(GERD)
  • Post-nasal drip
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • lung tumors
  • Heart failure and medications such as ACE inhibitors.
Types:
  • Acute cough: It begins suddenly and can be caused due to sinus, flu or sinus infection.
  • Sub acute cough: It lasts for 3-8 weeks
  • Chronic Cough: It lasts longer than 8 weeks.
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Some couples are almost desperate to conceive a baby of one particular gender. Fathers especially, can be eager to have a boy but there are also mothers who long for a son. Most couples however, are happy with either a boy or a girl baby, as long as it is healthy and strong. But if you are keen to try to sway the odds of having a boy then there is no harm in trying. Just remember that there are no guarantees and the odds of conceiving a boy or a girl are almost exactly the same for each and every pregnancy.

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Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) – Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Congestive Heart Failure (Heart Failure) (Cardiovascular) pipeline landscape.

Heart failure is also known as congestive heart failure (CHF). CHF is a condition in which the heart is no longer able to pump out enough oxygen-rich blood. Symptoms include cough, fatigue, weakness, faintness, loss of appetite, swollen (enlarged) liver or abdomen, swollen feet and ankles and weight gain. The predisposing factors include high blood pressure, diabetes, sleep apnea, alcohol use and irregular heartbeats. Treatment includes surgery, vasodilator, beta blockers and diuretics.

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Inability to completely evacuate the bowels or passing very hard stools is known as Constipation or Vibandh in Ayurveda. This prevalent problem is due to an incorrect lifestyle and poor eating patterns. Although constipation is often looked upon as a common problem, if not treated or if treatment is delayed, it can lead to further problems such as fissures, fistulas, piles, lack of appetite and indigestion.

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, refractory (non-reversible) asthma, and some forms of bronchiectasis. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessness.

Many people mistake their increased breathlessness and coughing as a normal part of aging. In the early stages of the disease, you may not notice the symptoms. COPD can develop for years without noticeable shortness of breath. You begin to see the symptoms in the more developed stages of the disease. 

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Foot corns are hardened layers of skin that develop from your skin’s response to friction and pressure. You may have foot corns if you experience the following symptoms on the tips and the sides of your toes:

rough, tough, yellowing patch of lumpy or bumpy skin

skin that’s sensitive to touch

pain when wearing shoes

Foot corns can be safely treated, and you can even prevent future ones. Keep reading to learn tips on how you can manage existing corns and minimize your chances of developing new ones.

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Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD),[13] is a group of diseases that includes: stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.[14] It is within the group of cardiovascular diseases of which it is the most common type

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Chest pain that occurs regularly with activity, after eating, or at other predictable times is termed stable angina and is associated with narrowings of the arteries of the heart.


Angina that changes in intensity, character or frequency is termed unstable. Unstable angina may precede myocardial infarction. In adults who go to the emergency department with an unclear cause of pain, about 30% have pain due to coronary artery disease

How Does Coronary Artery Disease Develop?


From a young age, plaque can start to go into your blood vessel walls. As you get older, the plaque builds up. 

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A cough is a common reflex action that clears the throat of mucus or foreign irritants. Coughing to clear the throat is typically an infrequent action, although a number of conditions can cause more frequent bouts of coughing.


In general, a cough that lasts for less than three weeks is an acute cough.


A cough that lasts between 3 and 8 weeks, improving by the end of that period, is a subacute cough.


A persistent cough that lasts more than eight weeks is a chronic cough.


Most cough episodes will clear up, or at least significantly improve, within two weeks. If you cough up blood or have a “barking” cough, talk to your doctor. Any cough that hasn’t improved after a few weeks may be serious, and you should see a doctor.

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Think of your feet as your physical base; they're what keep you up and running. So if you're like most people, and don't think your feet need consistent care, think again. Cracked heels are one of the most common foot issues that can arise if you don't pay proper attention. But don't despair, baby soft foot skin is just one article away. Read on to learn more about how to get rid of annoying cracked skin around the heels.

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Cradle cap causes crusty or oily scaly patches on a baby's scalp. The condition isn't painful or itchy. But it can cause thick white or yellow scales that aren't easy to remove.


Cradle cap usually clears up on its own in a few months. Home-care measures include washing your baby's scalp daily with a mild shampoo. This can help loosen and remove the scales. Don't scratch cradle cap.


If cradle cap persists or seems severe, your doctor may suggest a medicated shampoo, lotion or other 

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Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism.

Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles.

Approximately 2% of the body's creatine is converted to creatinine every day.

Creatinine is transported through the bloodstream to the kidneys. The kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and dispose of it in the urine.

Because the muscle mass in the body is relatively constant from day to day, the creatinine production normally remains essentially unchanged on a daily basis.

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Crohn's disease (sometimes called Crohn disease) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines. It primarily causes ulcerations (breaks in the lining) of the small and large intestines, but can affect the digestive system anywhere from the mouth to the anus. It is named after the physician who described the disease in 1932. It also is called granulomatous enteritis or colitis, regional enteritis, ileitis, or terminal ileitis.


Crohn's disease is related closely to another chronic inflammatory condition that involves only the colon called ulcerative colitis. Together, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are frequently referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have no medical cure. Once the diseases begin, they tend to fluctuate between periods of inactivity (remission) and activity (relapse).


 Men and women are affected equally by inflammatory bowel disease. Americans of Jewish European descent are more likely to develop IBD than the general population. IBD has historically been considered predominately disease of Caucasians, but there has been an increase in reported cases in African Americans suffering from IBD. The prevalence appears to be lower among Hispanic and Asian populations. IBD most commonly begins during adolescence and early adulthood (usually between the ages of 15 and 35). There is a small second peak of newly-diagnosed cases after age 50. The number of new cases (incidence) and number of cases (prevalence) of Crohn's disease in the United States are rising, although the reason for this is not completely understood.

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Crohn's disease (sometimes called Crohn disease) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines. It primarily causes ulcerations (breaks in the lining) of the small and large intestines, but can affect the digestive system anywhere from the mouth to the anus. It is named after the physician who described the disease in 1932. It also is called granulomatous enteritis or colitis, regional enteritis, ileitis, or terminal ileitis.


Crohn's disease is related closely to another chronic inflammatory condition that involves only the colon called ulcerative colitis. Together, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are frequently referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have no medical cure. Once the diseases begin, they tend to fluctuate between periods of inactivity (remission) and activity (relapse).


 Men and women are affected equally by inflammatory bowel disease. Americans of Jewish European descent are more likely to develop IBD than the general population. IBD has historically been considered predominately disease of Caucasians, but there has been an increase in reported cases in African Americans suffering from IBD. The prevalence appears to be lower among Hispanic and Asian populations. IBD most commonly begins during adolescence and early adulthood (usually between the ages of 15 and 35). There is a small second peak of newly-diagnosed cases after age 50. The number of new cases (incidence) and number of cases (prevalence) of Crohn's disease in the United States are rising, although the reason for this is not completely understood.


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Oh, what a beautiful smile you have there. Every time you smile, your eyes light up. Ah, those crinkles at the corners of the eyes make you look prettier still.


Crow’s feet may or may not look charming, but if I’m guessing right, you would still want to iron them out. Want to know the best treatment for crows feet? Worry not! Have a look at these remedies I’ve gathered, and you can have your wish come true in no time.

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Each strand of hair is made up of the medulla, cortex, and cuticle.[4] The innermost region, the medulla, is not always present and is an open, unstructured region.[5] The highly structural and organized cortex, or middle layer of the hair, is the primary source of mechanical strength and water uptake. The cortex contains melanin, which colors the fiber based on the number, distribution and types of melanin granules. The shape of the follicle determines the shape of the cortex, and the shape of the fiber is related to how straight or curly the hair is. People with straight hair have round hair fibers. Oval and other shaped fibers are generally more wavy or curly. The cuticle is the outer covering. Its complex structure slides as the hair swells and is covered with a single molecular layer of lipid that makes the hair repel water.[4] The diameter of human hair varies from 0.017 to 0.18 millimeters (0.00067 to 0.00709 in).[6] There are two million small, tubular glands and sweat glands that produce watery fluids that cool the body by evaporation. The glands at the opening of the hair produce a fatty secretion that lubricates the hair.[7]


Hair growth begins inside the hair follicle. The only "living" portion of the hair is found in the follicle. The hair that is visible is the hair shaft, which exhibits no biochemical activity and is considered "dead". The base of a hair's root (the "bulb") contains the cells that produce the hair shaft.[8] Other structures of the hair follicle include the oil producing sebaceous gland which lubricates the hair and the arrector pili muscles, which are responsible for causing hairs to stand up. In humans with little body hair, the effect results in goose bumps.

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Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs, digestive system and other organs in the body.


Cystic fibrosis affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices. These secreted fluids are normally thin and slippery. But in people with cystic fibrosis, a defective gene causes the secretions to become sticky and thick. Instead of acting as a lubricant, the secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, especially in the lungs and pancreas.


Although cystic fibrosis requires daily care, people with the condition are usually able to attend school and work, and often have a better quality of life than people with cystic fibrosis had in previous decades. Improvements in screening and treatments mean people with cystic fibrosis now may live into their mid- to late 30s, on average, and some are living into their 40s and 50s.

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A carotid Doppler test is generally an outpatient procedure, states Johns Hopkins Medicine. During the test, the patient must lie on his back with his neck bent back slightly. A technician applies a gel to the skin, presses a device called a transducer against the neck, and moves it around the area of the carotid artery. The technician then repeats the process on the other side of the neck. Carotid Doppler tests do not expose patients to radiation, and they usually do not cause any discomfort.


Patients who have carotid artery blockage or narrowing sometimes experience symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, drowsiness or headache that prompt a doctor to perform a carotid Doppler test, states Johns Hopkins Medicine. Other symptoms that may indicate problems with blood flow in the carotid arteries include momentary blindness in one eye or temporary problems speaking or moving. Carotid Doppler is sometimes performed as part of an evaluation prior to major cardiac surgery.

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A Doppler ultrasound is a noninvasive test that can be used to estimate the blood flow through your blood vessels by bouncing high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) off circulating red blood cells. A regular ultrasound uses sound waves to produce images, but can't show blood flow.


A Doppler ultrasound may help diagnose many conditions, including:


Blood clots

Poorly functioning valves in your leg veins, which can cause blood or other fluids to pool in your legs (venous insufficiency)

Heart valve defects and congenital heart disease

A blocked artery (arterial occlusion)

Decreased blood circulation into your legs (peripheral artery disease)

Bulging arteries (aneurysms)

Narrowing of an artery, such as in your neck (carotid artery stenosis)

A Doppler ultrasound can estimate how fast blood flows by measuring the rate of change in its pitch (frequency). During a Doppler ultrasound, a technician trained in ultrasound imaging (sonographer) presses a small hand-held device (transducer), about the size of a bar of soap, against your skin over the area of your body being examined, moving from one area to another as necessary.


This test may be done as an alternative to more-invasive procedures, such as angiography, which involves injecting dye into the blood vessels so that they show up clearly on X-ray images.


A Doppler ultrasound test may also help your doctor check for injuries to your arteries or to monitor certain treatments to your veins and arteries.

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Alterations of the abdominal aorta are relatively common, particularly in older people. Technological advances in the fields of ultrasonography, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have greatly increased the imaging options for the assessment of these lesions. Because it can be done rapidly and is also non-invasive, ultrasonography plays a major role in the exploration of the abdominal aorta, from its emergence from the diaphragm to its bifurcation. It is indicated for the diagnosis and follow-up of various aortic diseases, especially aneurysms. It can be used to define the shape, size, and location of these lesions, the absence or presence of thrombi and their characteristics. It is also useful for monitoring the evolution of the lesion and for postoperative follow-up. However, its value is limited in surgical planning and in emergency situations.

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This study aimed to evaluate the vascular pattern of solid breast lesions using power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) and assess whether the presence of intratumoural penetrating vessels can predict breast cancer malignancy.

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Carotid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the carotid arteries in the neck which carry blood from the heart to the brain. A Doppler ultrasound study – a technique that evaluates blood flow through a blood vessel – is usually part of this exam. It’s most frequently used to screen patients for blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries, a condition called stenosis which may increase the risk of stroke.


Little or no special preparation is required for this procedure. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. A loose-fitting, open necked shirt or blouse is ideal.

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The use of Doppler ultrasound to assess both the changing haemodynamics of the neonatal circulation and the perfusion of the brain is reviewed. The brain is particularly susceptible to both ischaemic and haemorrhagic injury in preterm and asphyxiated infants. However, the unique characteristics of the transitional neonatal circulation, and of the cerebral vasculature, pose considerable problems in the interpretation of Doppler signals from intracranial arteries. A volumetric Doppler method which eliminates some of those problems is discussed. The same method allows full assessment of the cardiovascular status of the newborn infant, including estimation of ductal shunting and left ventricular output. Doppler ultrasound, if used with a full understanding of the inherant assumptions and limitations of the particular methodology, is likely to prove invaluable in investigating pathological cerebral and cardiac vascular events in the newborn.

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With the most advanced Echo-cardiography ultrasound and color Doppler system from Philips which uses a X- Matrix Probe (>9000 piezoelectric crystals) and break-through pure wave single crystal technology deliver high wualty images.


This is the only diagnostic centre in city doing ultrasound contrast study. 

Some of the features are unique in the machine and not available elsewhere. The machine gives extreme resolution for excellent 2D and LIVE 3D (4D) images. It has extreme color sensitivity. 3D images in cross sectional view (all three planes). VOCAL ( Volumetric organ calculation), Multislice CT like images. PANORAMIC images to include a wide area in single image. Dynamic MR to give maximum resolution, Broad band frequency compounding, harmonic imaging etc.

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A recent estimate of the number of men in the United States suffering with complete erectile dysfunction is 10 to 20 million. When partial erectile dysfunction is included, the estimate jumps to 30 million.1 Age-specific prevalence is estimated to be 5% at age 40, increasing to 15% to 25% by age 65. In clinical series, the ratio of organic to psychologic male sexual dysfunction also varies with age: 70% of patients under 35 years of age have a psychogenic cause, and 85% of patients over 50 years of age have organic impotence.2 Patient accounts of coital frequency similarly vary with age: 75% of men in their seventh decade report having coitus once monthly, and 37% of patients 60 to 69 years old describe having weekly coitus.

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Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries is a valuable technique, although it is less frequently indicated for peripheral arterial disease than for deep vein thrombosis or varicose veins. Ultrasonography can diagnose stenosis through the direct visualization of plaques and through the analysis of the Doppler waveforms in stenotic and poststenotic arteries. To perform Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries, the operator should be familiar with the arterial anatomy of the lower extremities, basic scanning techniques, and the parameters used in color and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography.

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A Doppler ultrasound is a test that uses high-frequency sound waves to measure the amount of blood flow through your arteries and veins, usually those that supply blood to your arms and legs.


Vascular flow studies, also known as blood flow studies, can detect abnormal flow within an artery or blood vessel. This can help to diagnose and treat a variety of conditions, including blood clots and poor circulation. A Doppler ultrasound can be used as part of a blood flow study.


A Doppler ultrasound is a risk-free and pain-free procedure that requires little preparation. The test provides your doctor with important information about the flow of blood through your major arteries and veins. It can also reveal blocked or reduced blood flow through narrowed areas in the arteries, which could eventually lead to a stroke.

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A Doppler ultrasound, also called a Color Doppler test is a non-invasive test that can be used to estimate your blood flow through blood vessels. It helps doctors evaluate blood flow through major arteries and veins, such as those of the arms, legs, and neck. It can show blocked or reduced flow of blood through narrow areas in the major arteries of the neck that could cause a stroke. It also can reveal blood clots in leg veins (deep vein thrombosis, or DVT) that could break loose and block blood flow to the lungs (pulmonary embolism). During pregnancy, Doppler ultrasound may be used to look at blood flow in an unborn baby (foetus) to check the health of the foetus. 

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A prospective study comparing colour Doppler ultrasound (US) with the 'gold standard' of intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of renal transplant artery stenosis was performed. Both the intrarenal vessels and the transplant renal artery were examined by Doppler US. Diagnostic arteriography was performed only if, on Doppler, the peak systolic velocity in the transplant renal artery exceeded 1.5 ms-1. Of 109 patients, the transplant artery could not be visualized using colour Doppler US in three, and these were omitted from statistical analysis. Of the remaining 106 patients, 31 had a peak systolic velocity greater than 1.5 ms-1 in the transplant renal artery and were referred for DSA. Of the multiple renal Doppler indices recorded, the peak systolic velocity in the transplant artery was the best discriminating measurement for the detection of renal artery stenosis. A peak systolic velocity of > or = 2.5 ms-1 in the transplant renal artery had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95% for the detection of renal artery stenosis ( > 50% diameter reduction). Although a significant difference in Pulsatility Index, Resistive Index, Acceleration Index and Acceleration Time was recorded from the intrarenal vessels in the angiographically normal and stenosed groups with Doppler, these measurements were less useful as discriminating diagnostic tests. In conclusion, the peak systolic velocity in the transplant renal artery is the most sensitive Doppler criterion for renal artery stenosis and is sensitive and specific enough to be used as a screening test. The intrarenal acceleration time and index should not be used in isolation.

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A device called a transducer is passed over the scrotum, directing high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) at the structures within, including the testicle, epididymis (the tube that transports sperm from the testicle), and blood vessels. The sound waves are reflected back to the transducer and electronically converted into real-time images displayed on a viewing monitor. These images are then saved on film or video and reviewed for abnormalities.

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Color Doppler is an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique used to visualize subcutaneous body structures including tendons, muscles, joints, vessels and internal organs for possible Pathology or Lesions. Colour Doppler is also used for the following applications:-

Carotid Colour Doppler to detect risk of stroke and paralysis by   evaluating the vessels   in the neck that supply blood to the brain.  Peripherial Arterial Colour Doppler.

Peripherial Venous Colour Doppler for detection of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).

Renal Doppler (especially for hypertensive patients and diabetics).

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Color Doppler ultrasound is a medical imaging technique which is used to provide visualization of the bloodflow, using color processing to add color to the image so that a doctor or care provider can clearly see what is happening inside the body. This technique requires the use of an ultrasound machine which is capable of color Doppler ultrasound, and can be performed in a hospital or clinic as an outpatient procedure. Having this imaging study performed is not usually painful, and the patient does not require sedatives. 

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Venous ultrasound uses sound waves to produce images of the veins in the body. It is commonly used to search for blood clots, especially in the veins of the leg – a condition often referred to as deep vein thrombosis. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation and has no known harmful effects.


On occasion, you may be asked not to eat or drink anything but water for six to eight hours beforehand. Otherwise, little or no special preparation is required for this procedure. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown.

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A Doppler ultrasound, also called a Color Doppler test is a non-invasive test that can be used to estimate your blood flow through blood vessels. It helps doctors evaluate blood flow through major arteries and veins, such as those of the arms, legs, and neck. It can show blocked or reduced flow of blood through narrow areas in the major arteries of the neck that could cause a stroke. It also can reveal blood clots in leg veins (deep vein thrombosis, or DVT) that could break loose and block blood flow to the lungs (pulmonary embolism). During pregnancy, Doppler ultrasound may be used to look at blood flow in an unborn baby (foetus) to check the health of the foetus.

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You will lie on a narrow table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. Most often, you will lie on your back with your arms raised above your head.

Once you are inside the scanner, the machine's x-ray beam rotates around you. Modern "spiral" scanners can perform the exam without stopping.

A computer creates separate images of the belly area, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional models of the belly area can be made by stacking the slices together.

You must be still during the exam, because movement causes blurred images. You may be told to hold your breath for short periods of time.

The scan should take less than 30 minutes.

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An angiogram of the head and neck is an X-ray test that uses a special dye and camera (fluoroscopy) to take pictures of the blood flow in the blood vessels of the head and neck camera.gif. An angiogram of the neck (carotid angiogram) can be used to look at the large arteries in the neck that lead to the brain. An angiogram of the head (cerebral angiogram) can be used to look at the veins or the four arteries (four-vessel study) carrying blood to the brain.


During an angiogram, a thin, soft tube called a catheter is placed camera.gif into a blood vessel in the groin (femoral artery or vein) or just above the elbow (brachial artery or vein). The catheter is guided to the head and neck area. Then an iodine dye (contrast material) is injected into the vessel to make the area show clearly on the X-ray pictures. The angiogram pictures can be made into regular X-ray films or stored as digital pictures in a computer.


An angiogram can find a bulge in a blood vessel (aneurysm). It can also show narrowing or a blockage in a blood vessel that slows or stops blood flow. An abnormal pattern of blood vessels (arteriovenous [AV] malformation) or abnormal vessels near a tumor can be seen.


A magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) or computed tomography angiogram (CTA) may be an option instead of a standard angiogram. Each of these tests is less invasive than an angiogram. Some MRA tests and all CTA tests require an injection of dye. A CTA also involves radiation exposure.


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This is a procedure used to evaluate the blood flow of the arteries in the arms or legs. Using image-guidance, doctors can determine if there is damage to or a blockage of blood flow in an artery. This is helpful in diagnosing certain conditions such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the blood vessel) or damage caused by trauma. This helps doctors in planning for future interventions, including vascular procedures (such as stent placement) or surgery.

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You will be asked to lie on a narrow table that slides into the center of the CT scanner.


While inside the scanner, the machine's x-ray beam rotates around you.


A computer creates many separate images of the body area, called slices. These images can be stored, viewed on a monitor, or printed on film. Three-dimensional models of the head and neck area can be created by stacking the slices together.


You must be still during the exam, because movement causes blurred images. You may be told to hold your breath for short periods of time.


Complete scans usually take only a few seconds. The newest scanners can image your entire body, head to toe, in less than 30 seconds.

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A computerized tomography (CT) coronary angiogram is an imaging test that looks at the arteries that supply blood to your heart. It might be used to diagnose the cause of chest pain or other symptoms.


A CT coronary angiogram relies on a powerful X-ray machine to produce images of your heart and its blood vessels. These tests are noninvasive and don't require recovery time. Coronary CT angiograms are increasingly an option for people with a variety of heart conditions.


A traditional (not CT-based) coronary angiogram requires that a flexible tube (catheter) be threaded through your groin or arm to your heart or coronary arteries. If you have known coronary artery disease, your doctor might recommend a traditional coronary angiogram because you can also receive treatment during that procedure.

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The first reported case of the use of computed tomography (CT) to guide biopsy was published in 1975 (1). By 1976, CT was heralded as the single most accurate method for guiding biopsy (2). With the increasing availability of CT and the development of percutaneous techniques, this statement has proved true: CT is now the imaging modality of choice for guiding percutaneous procedures. Over the following 20 years, CT-guided procedures were performed by obtaining a planning image of the region of interest and using cutaneous markers to specify a percutaneous access point. Needle advancement was documented by leaving the scanning room and obtaining one to three contiguous images at the level of the needle plane and repeating the process with each subsequent manipulation of the needle. The advent of CT fluoroscopy in the early 1990s allowed the needle to be visualized in real time, expediting the procedure and markedly reducing its overall length, partly because participants did not leave the scanning room (3). However, the use of real-time CT fluoroscopy potentially increased patient radiation dose and, for the first time, exposed physicians, nurses, and technologists to radiation.


Because CT fluoroscopy–guided procedures have become more common, they account for an important portion of the radiation dose delivered to our patient population. It has been shown that radiation dose may be significantly reduced in diagnostic CT examinations with no loss of diagnostic image quality (4). Likewise, dose should be taken into account when planning interventional procedures, and the radiation dose used should be as low as reasonably achievable to complete the procedure successfully. In this article, we discuss how patient dose is estimated and how knowledge of how a radiation dose is distributed over the course of a procedure is essential in developing low-dose protocols. If certain straightforward steps are followed, it is possible to significantly reduce radiation exposure for both patients and physicians

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Bronchoscopy is a procedure that looks inside the lung airways. It involves inserting a bronchoscope tube, with its light and small camera, through your nose or mouth, down your throat into your trachea, or windpipe, and to the bronchi and bronchioles of your lungs. This procedure is used to find the cause of a lung problem. It can detect tumors, signs of infection, excess mucus in the airways, bleeding, or blockages in the lungs. It also can allow your doctor to take samples of mucus or tissue for other laboratory tests, as well as to insert airway stents, or small tubes, to keep your airway open to treat some lung problems.


The procedure is performed using a flexible bronchoscope or a rigid bronchoscope. Flexible bronchoscopy is more common than rigid bronchoscopy, and flexible bronchoscopy usually does not require general anesthesia. Before the procedure, you will be given medicine to relax you. A liquid medicine also will be given to numb your nose and throat. If you have low blood oxygen levels during the procedure, you will be treated with oxygen therapy. If you have a lot of bleeding in your lungs or a large object is stuck in your airway, you may require rigid bronchoscopy in a hospital operating room under general anesthesia.


After the procedure, you will be monitored to make sure you don’t have complications. You may experience a sore throat, cough, or hoarseness that will go away with time. If you had the procedure as an outpatient, you likely will be able to go home after a few hours, but you will need a ride home because of the medicines or anesthesia you received. You will need to follow up with your doctor after the procedure to get your results.


Bronchoscopy is usually safe, but there is a small risk for fever, minor bleeding, or pneumonia. Pneumothorax, or collapsed lung, is a rare but serious side effect that can be treated. Your doctor may do a chest x ray after the procedure to check for lung problems.

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Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body.


The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD.


CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels.


A cardiac CT scan for coronary calcium is a non-invasive way of obtaining information about the presence, location and extent of calcified plaque in the coronary arteries—the vessels that supply oxygen-containing blood to the heart muscle. Calcified plaque results when there is a build-up of fat and other substances under the inner layer of the artery. This material can calcify which signals the presence of atherosclerosis, a disease of the vessel wall, also called coronary artery disease (CAD). People with this disease have an increased risk for heart attacks. In addition, over time, progression of plaque build up (CAD) can narrow the arteries or even close off blood flow to the heart. The result may be chest pain, sometimes called "angina," or a heart attack.


Because calcium is a marker of CAD, the amount of calcium detected on a cardiac CT scan is a helpful prognostic tool. The findings on cardiac CT are expressed as a calcium score. Another name for this test is coronary artery calcium scoring.

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Computed Tomography or CT Scan is one of the advanced X-ray procedures. Different from the usual X-ray, CT scan employs multiple X-ray beams and creates a detailed, 3D-like image of the body parts. CT scan of chest—also CT scan thorax—focuses on lungs and is designed for identification of various lung-related disorders. Because CT scan chest gives elaborated images of lungs, it detects and predicts the presence of lung cancer at early stages. A CT scan of abdomen provides the details of the blood vessels, bones and organs in the abdominal cavity.

Let your physician know if you have particular allergies, are pregnant, have diabetes or weigh

more than 135 kg because CT scanners have a weight limit.

Your physician may ask you to do the following prior to the scan:

1. fast for 2–4 hours,

2. stop taking particular medicines,

3. drink a large glass of oral contrast (chemicals to get better images) wait for 60–90

minutes,

4. wear a loose clothing that is comfortable and

5. remove items like dentures, jewellery, hair clips, hearing aids, eyeglasses, etc.

Depending on the type of CT scan – chest/upper abdomen, the contrast may be:

1. delivered through a vein in your forearm or hand,

2. given via the rectum using an enema or

3. taken orally in a liquid form.

CT scan is done for the following: Chest: analysing the abnormalities in the chest; detecting lung cancers or tumours and blood clots or internal injuries; monitoring the effect of lung cancer drugs on cancer; etc. Abdomen: detecting pain or a mass in the abdomen; locating kidney stones; diagnosing cancers, appendicitis, or Crohn’s disease; etc.



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Virtual colonoscopy is a minimally invasive exam to screen for cancer of the large intestine (colon cancer). Virtual colonoscopy is also known as a screening CT colonography.


Unlike traditional colonoscopy, which requires a scope to be inserted into your rectum and advanced through your colon, virtual colonoscopy uses a CT scan to produce hundreds of cross-sectional images of your abdominal organs. The images are combined and digitally manipulated to provide a detailed view of the inside of the colon and rectum.


Virtual colonoscopy is one option used to screen for colon cancer. Discuss your colon cancer screening options with your doctor to determine whether virtual colonoscopy is the right option for you.

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The spinal cord is made up of three bones: lumbar, dorsal, and cervical. The dorsal spine, the middle portion of the cord, comprises 12 vertebrae and forms the largest portion. A CT scan with a Virtualscopy test of the dorsal spine gives a 3D scanned image of the spine. It is useful in getting a clear picture of the condition of the bones and helps in detecting any abnormalities in the same. Back pain and multiple sclerosis are the most common symptoms that call for a CT scan test of the dorsal spine. It is a relatively painless procedure.

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noninvasive X-ray test that is used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions.


It provides detailed cross sectional images of the body part in question to provide more clarity and detailed images than traditional X-rays.


A CT scan of the facial area produces images of a patient’s sinus cavity.

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A CT of the head is an exam which takes thin slice images of the brain, brain stem and skull. This is very useful to diagnose stroke, trauma, congenital defects, bleeding and possible masses. A CT of the orbit is an exam which takes thin slice images of the eye and orbital socket at three different angles. This helps in the diagnosis of things such as injury, diseases and congenital effects.

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Triphasic spiral liver Computed Tomography (CT) is a standardized procedure for the detection and characterization of a large variety of benign and malignant liver lesions. This helps in the decline of mortality and morbidity rates among patients with liver disease. Spiral computed tomography has gained acceptance as the preferred computed tomography technique for routine liver evaluation because it provides image acquisition at peak enhancement of liver parenchyma during a single breath hold. In addition fast data acquisition allows successive scanning of the entire liver at different intervals after injection of the iodinated contrast material, thus creating the possibility of multiphase liver computed tomography.

Triphasic CT scan is a good non-invasive tool and can be used as first line imaging modality for differentiating benign and malignant focal liver lesions. Benign lesions like haemangioma can be reliably differentiated from malignant liver lesion; therefore unnecessary biopsies can be avoided. It is also particularly useful for hypervascular lesions which can be easily missed on routine CT scanning.



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The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning in the 1980s has revolutionized diagnostic imaging of the temporal bone. CT scanning offers the greatest structural definition of any currently available imaging modality. [1, 2] The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with the normal anatomy of the temporal bone depicted by CT scanning. The article reviews the anatomy of the middle ear space and surrounding bone and presents radiographic imaging in both axial and coronal views, with labeled salient features and relevant text.


An axial view through the superior portion of the temporal bone can be seen below.


A study by Visvanathan and Morrissey used high-resolution CT scanning to determine that temporal bone variations are not uncommon. Evaluating 339 temporal bones, the investigators found that the incidences of deep sinus tympani, anteriorly located sigmoid sinus, high dehiscent jugular bulb, enlarged internal auditory meatus, and enlarged cochlear aqueduct were 5.01%, 2.94%, 2.76%, 1.76%, and 0.58%, respectively.

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A doctor or physician may order a CT scan of the leg to make detailed pictures and analyze the internal structure. Computerized tomography (CT) scanning is useful to get a very detailed 3D image of certain parts of legs.


The process begins by taking many different X-ray views at various different angles, which are then combined with the use of computer processing to create cross-sectional images of the bones and soft tissue inside of your body, including tissues inside of solid organ. Ordinary X-ray testing does not show clear images of soft tissue, so doctors often request CT scanning to get a good image of soft tissue including organs, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and the brain. Sometimes a contrast dye is used as it shows up clearer on the screen.


A quality CT scan of the leg will use multiple x-rays to make cross sectional pictures of the leg.

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Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis is a diagnostic imaging test used to help detect diseases of the small bowel, colon and other internal organs and is often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives.


Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking, and allergies. You will be instructed not to eat or drink anything for a few hours beforehand. If you have a known allergy to contrast material, your doctor may prescribe medications to reduce the risk of an allergic reaction. These medications must be taken 12 hours prior to your exam. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown.

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A CT scan, commonly referred to as a CAT scan, is a type of X-ray that produces cross-sectional images of a specific part of the body. In the case of a lumbar spine CT scan, your doctor can see a cross-section of your lower back. The scanning machine circles the body and sends images to a computer monitor, where they are reviewed by a technician.


The lumbar portion of the spine is a common area where back problems occur. The lumbar spine is the lowest portion of your spine. It’s made up of five vertebral bones. Below the lumbar spine is the sacrum and below the sacrum is the coccyx (tailbone). Large blood vessels, nerves, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage are also part of the lumbar spine.

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CT scanning-sometimes called CAT scanning-is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions.


CT scanning combines special x-ray equipment with sophisticated computers to produce multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body. These cross-sectional images of the area being studied can then be examined on a computer monitor, printed or transferred to a CD.


CT scans of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater clarity and reveal more details than regular x-ray exams.


Using specialized equipment and expertise to create and interpret CT scans of the body, radiologists can more easily diagnose problems such as cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, appendicitis, trauma and musculoskeletal disorders.

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Direct examination via endoscopy remains the criterion standard for evaluation of laryngotracheobronchial pathologic conditions. Endoscopy allows for easy visualization and accurate diagnosis of mucosal and superficial submucosal lesions. However, the evaluation of deeper structures is capable only through CT imaging or MRI. CT imaging has become the most commonly used technique for general laryngeal imaging. It is readily available at most hospitals and even at some outpatient centers. The acquisition time for a CT image is extremely short (within a matter of seconds), which is quite useful for the laryngeal examination, as patients are generally required to hold their breath to reduce movement. [1, 2]


Nevertheless, small lesions may still be difficult to visualize. In these cases, active techniques such as the Valsalva maneuver and phonation can better delineate masses of the hypoglottis and vocal cords, respectively.


MRI has also become more widely available in the past decade, although it has not surpassed CT scanning for conventional laryngeal imaging. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages. For example, CT and MRI appear to be comparable in efficacy for defining the site and extent of disease in fat and muscle. MRI, however, is more sensitive for detecting pathologic involvement of cartilage (Glastonbury). CT imaging is best for evaluation of occult fractures and dislocations during laryngeal trauma. Furthermore, MRI seems to be the optimal method for examining cooperative patients, especially for preoperative larynx evaluation when partial laryngectomy is considered. CT imaging is more useful in patients who cannot lie still for the study (eg, inebriated, combative). The imaging study performed usually depends on the experience of the radiologist. Additionally, MRI avoids radiation exposure. For more information, please see the Medscape Reference articleMR Imaging of the Larynx.

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A computed tomography (CT) scan of the orbit is an imaging method. It uses x-rays to create detailed pictures of the eye sockets (orbits), eyes and surrounding bones.

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Computed tomography (CT) perfusion of the head uses special x-ray equipment to show which areas of the brain are adequately supplied with blood (perfused) and provides detailed information about blood flow to the brain. CT perfusion is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. It’s a useful technique for measuring blood flow to the brain, which may be important for treating stroke, brain blood vessel disease and brain tumors.

Computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging shows which areas of the brain are adequately supplied or perfused with blood and provides detailed information on delivery of blood or blood flow to the brain.

CT perfusion scanning is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions.

CT scanning combines special x-ray equipment with sophisticated computers to produce multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body. These cross-sectional images of the area being studied can then be examined on a computer monitor, printed or transferred to a CD.

CT scans of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater clarity and reveal more details than regular x-ray exams.

In many ways CT scanning works very much like other x-ray examinations. Different body parts absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. It is this crucial difference in absorption that allows the body parts to be distinguished from one another on an x-ray film or CT electronic image.

In a conventional x-ray exam, a small amount of radiation is aimed at and passes through the part of the body being examined, recording an image on a special electronic image recording plate. Bones appear white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up in shades of gray, and air appears black.With CT scanning, numerous x-ray beams and a set of electronic x-ray detectors rotate around you, measuring the amount of radiation being absorbed throughout your body. Sometimes, the examination table will move during the scan, so that the x-ray beam follows a spiral path. A special computer program processes this large volume of data to create two-dimensional cross-sectional images of your body, which are then displayed on a monitor. CT imaging is sometimes compared to looking into a loaf of bread by cutting the loaf into thin slices. When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view of the body's interior.

Refinements in detector technology allow nearly all CT scanners to obtain multiple slices in a single rotation. These scanners, called multislice CT or multidetector CT, allow thinner slices to be obtained in a shorter period of time, resulting in more detail and additional view capabilities.


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PNS is the full form of Para Nasal Sinuses. A Computed Tomography (CT) Scan of the PNS is an imaging test of sinuses which uses X-Rays to bring out in-depth images of air-filled spaces within the bones of the face, surrounding the nasal cavity. It usually includes the upper area of the throat, behind the nose. Some doctors refer to CT Scan PNS as Sinus CT Scan also. 

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A CT scan uses X-rays to make detailed pictures camera.gif of the spine and vertebrae camera.gif.


During the test, you will lie on a table that is attached to the CT scanner, which is a large doughnut-shaped machine. The CT scanner sends X-rays through the body. Each rotation of the scanner takes a second and provides a picture of a thin slice of the organ or area being studied. One part of the scanning machine can tilt to follow the curve of your spine. All of the pictures are saved as a group on a computer. They also can be printed.


In some cases, a dye called contrast material may be put in a vein (IV) in your arm or into the spinal canal. The dye makes structures and organs easier to see on the CT pictures. The dye may be used to check blood flow and look for tumors, areas of inflammation, or nerve damage.

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Abdominal and Pelvic CT scan shows the abdominal and pelvic organs of our body (such as the pancreas, liver, kidneys, spleen, and adrenal glands) and the gastrointestinal tract. A doctor usually orders this test to check for a cause of abnormal pain and sometimes to follow-up on an abnormality seen on another test such as an ultrasound.

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A CT (computed tomography) scan, which is also called a CAT scan, is a type of specialized X-ray. The scan can show cross-sectional images of a specific area of the body. With a CT scan, the machine circles the body and sends the images to a computer, where they’re viewed by a technician.


An abdominal CT scan helps your doctor see the organs, blood vessels, and bones in your abdominal cavity. The multiple images provided give your doctor many different views of your body.


Keep reading to learn why your doctor may order an abdominal CT scan, how to prepare for your procedure, and any possible risks and complications.

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Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of the body.


The cross-sectional images generated during a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These images can be viewed on a computer monitor, printed on film or transferred to a CD or DVD.


CT images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels.


Using specialized equipment and expertise to create and interpret CT scans of the body, radiologists can more easily diagnose problems such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, appendicitis, trauma and musculoskeletal disorders.

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C-peptide is a substance, a short chain of amino acids, that is released into the blood as a byproduct of the formation of insulin by the pancreas. This test measures the amount of C-peptide in a blood or urine sample.


In the pancreas, within specialized cells called beta cells, proinsulin, a biologically inactive molecule, splits apart to form one molecule of C-peptide and one molecule of insulin. Insulin is vital for the transport of glucose into the body's cells and is required on a daily basis. When insulin is required and released from the beta cells into the blood in response to increased levels of glucose, equal amounts of C-peptide are also released. Since C-peptide is produced at the same rate as insulin, it is useful as a marker of insulin production.


In particular, C-peptide testing can be used to help evaluate the production of insulin made by the body (endogenous) and to help differentiate it from insulin that is not produced by the body but is taken in as diabetic medication (exogenous) and so does not generate C-peptide. This test may be done in conjunction with an insulin test.





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CA 19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9, also called cancer antigen 19-9 or sialylated Lewis (a) antigen) is a tumor marker that is used primarily in the management of pancreatic cancer. CA 19-9 is an antigen defined by monoclonal antibody binding to CA 19-9, the tumor surface marker Sialyl-Lewis A.

CA 19-9 can be elevated in many types of gastrointestinal cancer, such as colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.Apart from cancer, elevated levels may also occur in pancreatitis, cirrhosis,and diseases of the bile ducts.It can be elevated in people with obstruction of the bile ducts.

In patients who lack the Lewis antigen (a blood type antigen on red blood cells), which is about 10% of the Caucasian population, CA 19-9 is not expressed,even in those with large tumors.This is because of a deficiency of a fucosyltransferase enzyme that is needed to produce CA 19-9 as well as the Lewis antigen.


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In horses there are 7 blood group systems (A,C,D,K,P,Q,U) with greater than 30 red blood cell factors. Of these, Ca seems to be one of the most immunogenic antigens (causing allo-immunization).


Transfusion reactions

Blood typing before transfusion minimizes the risk of transfusion reactions and prevent immunization of the recepient against incompatible RBC antigens. Ca, Aa and Qa antigens are clinically important for their role in transfusion reactions.


Neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI)


NI is a potentially fatal condition in new foals that result from an incompatibility of blood types between the mare and the foal. It is caused when the mare produces antibodies against the foal RBC and transfers those antibodies through colostrum.

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CA15-3 is a tumour marker. It is used to check how breast cancer treatment is working and look for cancer that has come back, or recurred, after treatment.

If you are diagnosed with breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, or metastasized, you may have this test, along with other tests such as hormone receptor testing and HER2 status testing.

CA15-3 is not measured for early stage breast cancer because the levels of this protein are rarely higher than normal at this stage.

A CA15-3 test is a blood test done with a needle. It’s usually done in a private lab or hospital lab. You don’t need to do anything special to prepare.

CA15-3 levels can be higher than normal with cancerous and non-cancerous conditions. CA15-3 is most often increased in breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

In general, the higher the level of CA15-3 in the blood, the more cancer there is in the body. The levels are highest when breast cancer has spread to the bones, the liver or both. If the level of CA15-3 goes down or returns to normal, it may mean that treatment is working. If levels increase over time, it may mean that the cancer is not responding well to treatment, is still growing or is coming back (recurring).

CA15-3 may be higher than normal in cancer of the lung, pancreas, ovary and prostate, but these levels are not as high as with breast cancer.

Non-cancerous conditions that increase CA 15-3 include endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease and liver disease. It can also be increased during pregnancy. With these conditions, CA15-3 levels usually only go so high. They don’t usually keep climbing over time.



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Cancer antigen 27.29 (CA 27.29) is a blood test that is done specifically for people with breast cancer. It is one of the breast cancer tumor markers that can be used to monitor the course of the disease. One version of this test is called the " truquant BR radioimmunoassay test."
CA 27.29 is an antigen—that is, a specific type of protein present on the surface of cells and is produced by a gene called MUC-1.
CA-27 is a "glycoproteins," (glyco means sugar) and may be present on the surface of epithelial cells like breast cancer cells.  Breast cancer cells can shed copies of the CA 27.29 protein into the bloodstream too.
A blood CA 27.29 measurement is ordinarily less than 40 U/ml. With cancer, Ca-27 levels may increase, the higher the value, the greater the likelihood this may indicate the presence of cancer.
It can help to break down the different ways in which the CA 27.29 biomarker test may be used:

1.Diagnosis—This test is not often done to diagnose breast cancer, at least not alone. It's mentioned here to make note that the CA 27.29 test is the only blood test used specifically to determine the presence of breast cancer cells. If you have or think you may have early stage breast cancer, this test may be performed to help make your diagnosis.

2.To monitor treatments—The CA 27.29 test is often done to monitor your response to breast cancer treatments. If your levels rise, it may indicate that your cancer is coming back or progressing, and it may be necessary to adjust your treatments accordingly.  If your levels fall, it may indicate that your treatment is effectively killing your cancer.

3.To look for early recurrence—If your treatment for breast cancer has been completed, this test may be done at regular intervals to detect an early recurrence of your cancer. An elevation of CA 27.29 occurs, on average, around five months before a recurrence is evident based on symptoms or imaging studies alone. Despite this, there is still debate over whether or not finding a recurrence of cancer before symptoms makes a difference in the treatment and, ultimately, the outcome of the disease.

4.To monitor metastatic cancer (status check)—The test may help those with metastatic breast cancer know if their cancer is progressing. That said, elevated levels can linger for some time and, in one study, 30 percent of people had elevated levels which persisted for two to three months after the onset of effective treatment.

This test is not recommended as a method of screening for breast cancer, or as a way to diagnose breast cancer alone, as it lacks what scientists refer to as predictive value.
Moreover, physicians vary tremendously in their practice of ordering this test. Some physicians put little emphasis on the test, whereas others routinely order it on a regular basis.
It's important to note the limitations of the CA 27.29 test. In monitoring the treatment of metastatic breast cancer—how this test is most commonly used—it’s important to again note that elevated levels of CA 27.29 may persist for up to three months after treatment has been completed.
In other words, if you have the test done a few months after finishing treatment, the levels could still be high even if you are responding well to the treatment.
Since the CA 27.29 test is the only test used specifically to detect the presence of breast cancer cells, it would seem that it would be ordered more often to screen for breast cancer.
Yet, as noted, the test lacks predictive value in determining the presence of a breast cancer. 
Positive predictive value refers to the likelihood that you have a disease if you test positive for the disease. There are many tests in medicine that would seem to make sense as a method of screening for a disease, yet in studies, lack the accuracy to make a difference in survival rates.
The final limitation is when the test is used to find a recurrence. There is much debate over whether finding a recurrence of breast cancer early could make a difference. While, at first glance, it would seem that there would be benefits to this practice, studies have not found that survival rates improve when a recurrence of breast cancer is found early.
Part of the confusion lies in the goals of treatment for early-stage breast cancer versus metastatic breast cancer. With early stage breast cancer, the goal is usually to treat the disease aggressively in order to cure the cancer (or at least keep it from ever returning.) Aggressive treatment, however, is not the goal of metastatic breast cancer (though this may change in the near future) as it hasn't seemed to make a difference in survival rates. Instead, the goal is to usually use the least amount of treatment possible to control the disease. 

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CA 72 - 4 test is performed on a sample of blood to measure level of CA 72 - 4 in blood.It is performed to detect Gastrointestinal Cancer

Also known as GI Cancer Antigen 72-4 Monoclonal Antibody Blood, GI Cancer CA 72-4 Monoclonal Antibody Blood, GI Cancer Marker 72-4 Monoclonal Antibody Blood, GI Cancer Antigen 72-4, GI Cancer CA 72-4, GI Cancer Marker 72-4.

No special preparation is needed for CA 72 - 4. Inform your doctor if you are on any medications or have any underlying medical conditions or allergies before undergoing CA 72 - 4. Your doctor depending on your condition will give specific instructions.

CA 72 - 4 is done using Monoclonal Antibody method on a Blood sample. A blood sample of minimum 5mL is required for this test.

The normal result for CA 72 - 4 for CA 72 - 4 is < 7U/ml for Unisex gender and for All age groups.

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The toxicity of cadmium resembles the other heavy metals (arsenic, mercury, and lead) in that it attacks the kidney; renal dysfunction with proteinuria with slow onset (over a period of years) is the typical presentation.


Breathing the fumes of cadmium vapors leads to nasal epithelial deterioration and pulmonary congestion resembling chronic emphysema.


The most common source of chronic exposure comes from spray painting of organic-based paints without use of a protective breathing apparatus; aut

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The reference intervals are dependent on the method used for assessment.


Reference intervals based on sex and thyroid status have been established in healthy, unstimulated (eg, pentagastrin provocative test or post-calcium infusion) individuals and in stimulated individuals, as follows:


Basal reference ranges for some calcitonin chemiluminescent assays: Less than 8.8 pg/mL (ng/L) in males; less than 5.8 pg/mL (ng/L) in females; less than 0.5 pg/ml (ng/L) in athyroidal individuals

Peak calcium infusion (IMMULITE 2000 calcitonin assay): Less than or equal to 130 pg/mL in males; less than or equal to 90 pg/mL in females

Age, pregnancy, lactation, and ingestion of food have been reported to influence calcitonin concentration in healthy individuals, but specific reference intervals have not been established. 

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Calcium is an important mineral that your body uses in many ways. It increases the strength of your bones and teeth and helps your muscles and nerves function.


A serum calcium blood test measures the total calcium in your blood. There are several different forms of calcium in your blood. These include ionized calcium, calcium bound to other minerals called anions, and calcium bound to proteins like albumin. Ionized calcium, also known as free calcium, is the most active form.

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A calcium blood test measures the amount of calcium in your blood. Calcium is one of the most important minerals in your body. You need calcium for healthy bones and teeth. Calcium is also essential for proper functioning of your nerves, muscles, and heart. About 99% of your body's calcium is stored in your bones. The remaining 1% circulates in the blood. If there is too much or too little calcium in the blood, it may be a sign of bone disease, thyroid disease, kidney disease, or other medical conditions.

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Medullary thyroid cancer can be highly aggressive, especially if the diagnosis is done in advanced stages. Early diagnosis is based on RET genetic testing, for familial forms, and on the routine measurement of calcitonin (Ct). Nevertheless, since false-positive results can be obtained with the basal measurement of Ct, a provocative test to evaluate stimulated Ct is often needed. Pentagastrin which has been widely used to stimulate basal Ct, especially in European countries, is now hardly available. Thus, the stimulation with calcium (Ca), used in the 1970s-1980s and then abandoned for around 30 years, has recently elicited more interest. In the past 3 years, studies in patients and normal controls have demonstrated that the stimulation with Ca (2.3-2.5 mg/kg of elemental Ca, corresponding to 25 mg/kg of Ca gluconate) is highly potent and accurate. Novel gender-related cut-offs have been proposed for the Ca test, though the analysis of additional large series is predicted to modify these preliminary data. Finally, Ca seems to be the test of choice to stimulate Ct for the diagnosis and follow-up of medullary thyroid cancer, also because it is widely available, has a low cost and it is associated with a low number and intensity of side effects. In the present review the different methods to stimulate Ct and the cut-offs for the identification of the hyperplastic/neoplastic transformation of the C cells will be reported and discussed.

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Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein normally found in embryonic entodermal epithelium.


Increased levels may be found in patients with primary colorectal cancer or other malignancies including medullary thyroid carcinoma and breast, gastrointestinal tract, liver, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, and prostatic cancers.


Serial monitoring of CEA should begin prior to therapy to verify post therapy decrease in concentration and to establish a baseline for evaluating possible recurrence. Levels generally return to normal within 1 to 4 months after removal of cancerous tissue.

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Evaluation of carnitine in serum, plasma, tissue, and urine screens patients for suspected primary disorders of the carnitine cycle, or secondary disturbances in carnitine levels as a result of organic acidemias and fatty acid oxidation disorders. In the latter disorders, acyl-CoA groups accumulate and are excreted into the urine and bile as carnitine derivatives, resulting in a secondary carnitine deficiency. More than 100 such primary and secondary disorders have been described. Individually, the incidence of these disorders varies from less than 1 in 10,000 to more than 1 in 1,000,000 live births. Collectively, their incidence is approximately 1 in 1,000 live births. Primary carnitine deficiency has an incidence of approximately 1 in 21,000 live births based on Minnesota newborn screening data.


Other conditions which could cause an abnormal carnitine level are neuromuscular diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, familial cardiomyopathy, renal tubulopathies and chronic renal failure (dialysis), and prolonged treatment with steroids, antibiotics (pivalic acid), anticonvulsants (valproic acid), and total parenteral nutrition.

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Vitamin A, also known as retinol, plays an important role in the formation of rhodopsin, a photoreceptor pigment in the retina of the eye. Vitamin A helps to maintain epithelial tissues. Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds, including beta-carotene.


Typically the liver stores 80%-90% of the body's vitamin A. Primary Vitamin A deficiency is usually caused by dietary deprivation for a long period of time, but it can also stem from fat malabsorption or liver disorders.


In children with complicated measles, vitamin A can shorten the duration of the disorder and reduce the severity of symptoms and risk of death. The younger the patient, the more severe the effects of vitamin A deficiency are. Mortality rate can exceed 50% in children with severe vitamin A deficiency.

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A test for catecholamines measures the amount of the hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the blood. These catecholamines are made by nerve tissue camera.gif, the brain, and the adrenal glands. Catecholamines help the body respond to stress or fright and prepare the body for "fight-or-flight" reactions.


The adrenal glands make large amounts of catecholamines as a reaction to stress. The main catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine. They break down into vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), metanephrine, and normetanephrine. Metanephrine and normetanephrine also may be measured during a catecholamine test.


Catecholamines increase heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, muscle strength, and mental alertness. They also lower the amount of blood going to the skin and intestines and increase blood going to the major organs, such as the brain, heart, and kidneys.


Certain rare tumors (such as a pheochromocytoma) can increase the amount of catecholamines in the blood. This causes high blood pressure, excessive sweating, headaches, fast heartbeats (palpitations), and tremors.


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Ceruloplasmin, a glycoprotein produced in the liver, carries or transports more than 95 percent of the copper in blood plasma.


Copper plays an important role in the body by aiding crucial bodily processes. These include producing energy, forming connective tissue, and helping your central nervous system function.


A ceruloplasmin test can determine the levels of ceruloplasmin in your body. It’s most often used in the diagnosis of Wilson’s disease, a genetic disorder.

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A vaginal swab test involves taking a sample of vaginal secretions with a device that looks like a cotton bud. The swab, with secretions attached, is then placed in a special container and sent to the microbiology laboratory for further analysis. When it reaches the laboratory the sample is then plated on a Petrie dish, which is a flat dish containing a special jelly. The dish is then placed in a special incubator that maintains a particular level of heat and humidity, which facilitates the growth of any bacteria that may be contained in the sample. The jelly in the Petrie dish is a nutrient material that allows any bacteria in the sample to colonise the surface of the jelly. This is the process that is referred to when we send a swab for culture. In other words the lab technician is attempting to make the bacteria reproduce and multiply by creating a favourable yet artificial environment. Having succeeded in creating the bacterial colonies on the Petrie dish various antibiotics are then added to the dish to determine which antibiotics are the most effective in eliminating the bacterial colonies from the dish. Therefore culture and sensitivity simply refers to the process whereby the bacteria in the sample are identified and then tested to determine which antibiotics are needed to eliminate them. “Culture and sensitivity” testing is widely used in microbiology for testing such diverse samples as various bodily discharges to urine samples.

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Chikungunya virus (ChikV) is a single-stranded RNA alphavirus and a member of the Togaviridae family of viruses. The name Chikungunya is derived from the language of the Makonde ethnic groups in southeast Africa and means "that which bends" or "stooped walk." This is in reference to the hunched-over appearance of infected individuals due to the characteristically painful and incapacitating arthralgia caused by the virus. ChikV is endemic throughout Africa, India, and more recently the Caribbean islands. In 2014, the first case of autochthonous or local transmission in the United States occurred in Florida. 


Humans are the primary reservoir for ChikV and Aedes species mosquitos are the primary vectors for transmission. Unlike other mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Dengue, the majority of individuals who are exposed to ChikV become symptomatic, with the most severe manifestations observed at the extremes of age and in those with suppressed immunity. Once exposed to ChikV virus, individuals develop lasting immunity and protection from reinfection.


The incubation period, prior to development of symptoms, ranges on average from 3 to 7 days. Infected patients typically present with sudden onset high fever, incapacitating joint pain, and often a maculopapular rash lasting anywhere from 3 to 10 days. Notably, symptom relapse can occur in some individuals 2 to 3 months following resolution of initial symptoms. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines and treatment is strictly supportive care.

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This test looks for signs of chemical poisoning in your blood.


Cholinesterase is an enzyme that helps your nervous system work the way it should. Certain toxic chemicals in the environment can interfere with this enzyme and affect your nervous system.


These chemicals include organophosphates and carbamates. They are most often found in insecticides used in fields. They have also been used as chemical warfare agents. These chemicals can be found in common household insect sprays, too. They have been used in insecticides for more than 50 years.


If these chemicals get into your body, they can affect how you breathe and can cause general muscle weakness. They are called cholinesterase inhibitors. An overdose of these chemicals can be fatal.

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Chromium (Cr) exists in valence states ranging from 2(-) to 6(+). Hexavalent chromium (Cr[+6]) and trivalent chromium (Cr[+3]) are the 2 most prevalent forms. Cr(+6) is used in industry to make chromium alloys including stainless steel, pigments, and electroplated coatings. Cr(+6), a known carcinogen, is immediately converted to Cr(+3) upon exposure to biological tissues. Cr(+3) is the only chromium species found in biological specimens.


Serum Cr concentrations are likely to be increased above the reference range in patients with metallic joint prosthesis. Prosthetic devices produced by Depuy Company, Dow Corning, Howmedica, LCS, PCA, Osteonics, Richards Company, Tricon, and Whiteside typically are made of chromium, cobalt, and molybdenum. This list of products is incomplete, and these products change occasionally; see prosthesis product information for each device for composition details.

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Chromogranin A is a secretory protein, composed of 439 amino acids, found in the large dense-core vesicles of the neuroendocrine cells. It belongs to the family of granins that includes chromogranin B, chromogranin C, and secretogranin II.

Chromogranin A can be either measured in the serum or detected by immunohistochemistry in a tissue specimen.

Although it varies widely with the techniques used, the reference ranges for serum chromogranin A are as follows:

Less than 36.4 ng/mL (conventional unit) [1]

Less than 36.4 µg/L (system international)

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When pregnancy screening tests are abnormal; whenever signs of a chromosomal abnormality-associated disorder are present; as indicated to detect chromosomal abnormalities in a person and/or detect a specific abnormality in family members; sometimes when a person has leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, myelodysplasia or another cancer and an acquired chromosome abnormality is suspected

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Cytogenetics of hematologic disorders attempts to define and interpret chromosomal aberrations that occur in neoplastic cells associated with leukemia, lymphoma and other hematologic malignancies. Chromosome abnormalities in cancer cells of patients with malignant hematologic disorders including acute and chronic myeloid and lymphoid leukemias, myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders, lymphomas and unexplained anemias may correlate with the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and etiology of disease.

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The Orton Materials Testing and Research Center is a full service, independent testing laboratory that specializes in measuring the behavior of ceramic materials.  The Testing Center performs physical properties tests, thermal analysis measurements, and provides consulting services on ceramics and other related materials.


Initially, MTRC was known as The Refractories Fellowship Laboratory, which was established in 1917 at the Mellon Institute in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was relocated to The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio in 1965 and renamed the Refractory Research Center. Since 1990, the Center has been operated by the Edward Orton Jr. Ceramic Foundation.

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Simmons citrate agar tests the ability of organisms to utilize citrate as a carbon source. Simmons citrate agar contains sodium citrate as the sole source of carbon, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate as the sole source of nitrogen, other nutrients, and the pH indicator bromthymol blue. This test is part of the IMViC tests and is helpful in differentiating the Enterobacteriaceae .


Organisms which can utilize citrate as their sole carbon source use the enzyme citrase or citrate-permease to transport the citrate into the cell.   These organisms also convert the ammonium dihydrogen phosphate to ammonia and ammonium hydroxide, which creates an alkaline environment in the medium.  At pH 7.5 or above, bromthymol blue turns royal blue. At a neutral pH, bromthymol blue is green, as evidenced by the uninoculated media.

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The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL) involves detection of elevated levels of plasma and/or 24-h urine catecholamines and/or their metabolites, including metanephrines. Although these tests are reasonably sensitive, false-positive results are often encountered. Follow-up tests can provide additional information to correctly diagnose PPGL. In this regard, the utility of the urinary clonidine suppression test (UCST) remains unknown.

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Normal clot retraction time is 0-2 hours. If the weight of the clot or the percent of extruded serum is used as the end measure, the result depends on the volume of the specimen used, which varies from laboratory to laboratory. [1]


The coagulation cascade is complex. Platelets play a major role to initiate the process and regulate it through biochemical and mechanical interactions. The 3 steps of this process for platelets are adhesion, aggregation, and finally, retraction. [2] The clot retraction study measures the time taken for a platelet plug to undergo this last step, which indicates overall platelet function.

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When you get a cut, your body jumps into action to keep things from getting out of hand. Cells called platelets get there first to slow the bleeding. Then, a bunch of proteins, called clotting factors, show up. They all fit together to form a solid mass -- a blood clot -- to stop the bleeding so you can start healing.


That’s what typically happens. But if you tend to bleed easily or you get clots when you shouldn’t, then you may have a problem with your clotting factors.


That’s when you might need a prothrombin time test, which measures how quickly your blood clots. It’s also called a PT, pro time, or INR test.

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This test measures Cobalt levels in the blood.  Cobalt is a naturally occurring element which contributes to good health in the right amount.  Overexposure to Cobalt due to ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact can be dangerous to a person's health.  Exposure typically occurs in industrial settings which use products containing cobalt.  Depending on the type of exposure, Cobalt poisoning can cause symptoms such as coughing, breathing problems, skin irritation, nerve damage and heart problems.


Coblat blood testing is typically ordered when a person believes they have been exposed, especially if they work in environments where cobalt is present.  Periodic testing to monitor blood Cobalt levels is recommended for anyone who is at risk of exposure even if they are not experiencing symptoms.

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This Immunoglobulin test measures levels of 3 classes of immunoglobulins in the blood.  Results will include measurements for Immunoglobulin A (IgA), Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM).  Immunoglobulins, or antibodies, are an important part of the immune system which fight off bacteria, viruses and other foreign organisms. Measuring Immunoglobulin levels can help evaluate a person's immune system.


This test may be ordered when a person is suffering from chronic infections, especially of the lungs or gastrointestinal tract.  It can also help to diagnose various conditions resulting in excess or deficiencies in one or more types of antibodies.  Abnormal results will typically need to be followed up with further testing.

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Complement C3 is a blood test that measures the activity of a certain protein. This protein is part of the complement system. The complement system is a group of proteins that move freely through your bloodstream. The proteins work with your immune system and play a role in the development of inflammation.


The complement system protects the body from infections, dead cells and from foreign material. Rarely, people may inherit deficiency of some complement proteins. These people are prone to certain infections or autoimmune disorders.


There are nine major complement proteins. They are labeled C1 through C9. This test measures C3.

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This test measures the amount of C4 proteins in your blood. These proteins are part of your complement system, an important part of your immune system that helps kill disease-causing bacteria and viruses.


By measuring complement C4 levels, especially in how they compare with other parts of the complement system, your healthcare provider can diagnose and monitor treatment of certain diseases. One of the diseases that commonly involves abnormal C4 is systemic lupus erythematosus, or lupus, an autoimmune disorder.

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A complement test is a blood test that measures the activity of a group of proteins in the part of the blood called the serum. These proteins make up the complement system, which is part of the immune system.


The complement system helps antibodies fight off infections and destroy substances that are foreign to the body, such as viruses, bacteria, and other germs. It’s also activated when the body makes antibodies against its own tissues that it views as foreign. This happens in autoimmune diseases.


A complement test can monitor the progress of people undergoing treatment for autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The test can measure how advanced these diseases are based on the activity of the complement protein in the blood. It can also gauge the effectiveness of ongoing treatments for autoimmune disorders and diagnose some cancers and infectious diseases.


There are nine major complement proteins. They’re labeled C1 through C9. A total complement measurement checks the function of your complement system by gauging the total amount of complement protein in your blood.


The complement test involves a simple blood draw. It requires no preparation and carries few risks. Your doctor will send the blood sample to a laboratory for analysis. Your doctor will receive the results.

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The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) looks for antibodies attached to red blood cells (RBCs) circulating in the bloodstream. The test may help to detect or identify conditions in which antibodies become attached to RBCs, causing them to break apart (hemolyze).


RBCs have structures on their surfaces called antigens. Each person has their own individual set of RBC antigens, determined by inheritance from their parents. The major antigens or surface identifiers on human RBCs are the O, A, and B antigens, and a person's blood is grouped into an A, B, AB, or O blood type according to the presence or absence of these antigens. Another important surface antigen is the D antigen in the Rh blood group system. If it is present on someone's red blood cells, that person's blood type is Rh+ (positive); if it is absent, the blood is type Rh- (negative). (For more on these antigens, see the article on Blood Typing.) In addition, there are many other types of RBC antigens that make up lesser known but still clinically significant blood groups, such as Kell, Duffy, and Kidd

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An indirect Coombs' test determines whether there are antibodies to the Rh factor in the mother’s blood.


A normal (negative) result means that the mother has not developed antibodies against the fetus's blood. A negative Coombs' test indicates that the fetus is not presently in danger from problems relating to Rh incompatibility.

An abnormal (positive) result means that the mother has developed antibodies to the fetal red blood cells and is sensitized. However, a positive Coombs' test only indicates that an Rh-positive fetus has a possibility of being harmed. A positive test cannot indicate the amount of fetal harm that has occurred or is likely to occur.

If test results show that antibody amounts are increasing during pregnancy, the fetus may be at greater risk of harm.


A fetus who is Rh-negative will not be harmed, even if the mother is sensitized.

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Copper is an essential mineral that the body incorporates into enzymes. These enzymes play a role in the regulation of iron metabolism, formation of connective tissue, energy production at the cellular level, the production of melanin (the pigment that produces skin color), and the function of the nervous system. This test measures the amount of copper in the blood, urine, or liver (hepatic).


Copper is found in many foods including nuts, chocolate, mushrooms, shellfish, whole grains, dried fruits, and liver. Drinking water may acquire copper as it flows through copper pipes, and food may acquire it when people cook or serve food in copper dishes. Normally, the body absorbs copper from food or liquids in the intestines, converts it to a non-toxic form by binding it to a protein, and transports it to the liver. The liver stores some of the copper and binds most of the rest to another protein called apoceruloplasmin to produce the enzyme ceruloplasmin. About 95% of the copper in the blood is bound to ceruloplasmin, and most of the rest is bound to other proteins such as albumin. Only a small amount is normally present in the blood in a free (unbound) state. The liver eliminates excess copper into the bile and it is removed from the body in the stool. Some copper is also eliminated in the urine.


Both excess and deficiency of copper are rare. Wilson disease, a rare inherited disorder, can lead to excess storage of copper in the liver, brain, and other organs. Copper excess (toxicity) can also occur when a person is exposed to and absorbs large amounts over a short period of time (acute exposure) or various amounts over a long period (chronic exposure).


Copper deficiency may occasionally occur in people who have conditions associated with severe malabsorption, such as cystic fibrosis and celiac disease, and in infants exclusively fed cow-milk formulas.


A rare X-linked genetic condition called Menkes kinky hair syndrome leads to copper deficiency in the brain and liver of affected infants. The disease, which affects primarily males, is associated with seizures, delayed development, abnormal artery development in the brain, and unusual gray brittle kinky hair.

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Corticosterone is a steroid hormone and a precursor molecule for aldosterone. It is produced from deoxycorticosterone, further converted to 18-hydroxy corticosterone and, finally, to aldosterone in the mineralocorticoid pathway.


The adrenal glands, ovaries, testes, and placenta produce steroid hormones, which can be subdivided into 3 major groups: mineral corticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex steroids. Synthesis proceeds from cholesterol along 3 parallel pathways, corresponding to these 3 major groups of steroids, through successive side-chain cleavage and hydroxylation reactions. At various levels of each pathway, intermediate products can move into the respective adjacent pathways via additional, enzymatically catalyzed reactions (see Steroid Pathways in Special Instructions).


Corticosterone is the first intermediate in the corticoid pathway with significant mineral corticoid activity. Its synthesis from 11-deoxycorticosterone is catalyzed by 11 beta-hydroxylase 2 (CYP11B2) or by 11 beta-hydroxylase 1 (CYP11B1). Corticosterone is in turn converted to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and finally to aldosterone, the most active mineral corticoid. Both of these reactions are catalyzed by CYP11B2, which, unlike its sister enzyme CYP11B1, also possesses 18-hydroxylase and 18-methyloxidase (also known as aldosterone synthase) activity.


The major diagnostic utility of measurements of steroid synthesis intermediates lies in the diagnosis of disorders of steroid synthesis, in particular congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). All types of CAH are associated with cortisol deficiency with the exception of CYP11B2 deficiency and isolated impairments of the 17-lyase activity of CYP17A1 (this enzyme also has 17 alpha-hydroxylase activity). In cases of severe illness or trauma, CAH predisposes patients to poor recovery or death. Patients with the most common form of CAH (21-hydroxylase deficiency, >90% of cases), with the third most common form of CAH (3-beta-steroid dehydrogenase deficiency, <3% of cases) and those with the extremely rare StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) or 20,22 desmolase deficiencies might also suffer mineral corticoid deficiency, as the enzyme blocks in these disorders are proximal to potent mineral corticoids. These patients might suffer salt-wasting crises in infancy. By contrast, patients with the second most common form of CAH, 11-hydroxylase deficiency (<5% of cases) are normotensive or hypertensive, as the block affects either CYP11B1 or CYP11B2, but rarely both, thus ensuring that at least corticosterone is still produced. In addition, patients with all forms of CAH might suffer the effects of substrate accumulation proximal to the enzyme block. In the 3 most common forms of CAH, the accumulating precursors spill over into the sex steroid pathway, resulting in virilization of females or, in milder cases, hirsutism, polycystic ovarian syndrome or infertility, as well as in possible premature adrenarche and pubarche in both genders.

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Blood typing is a screening test to determine blood groups and Rh antigen for blood transfusion and pregnancy. The four blood groups A, B, O, and AB are determined by the presence of antigens A and B or their absence (O) on a patient's red blood cells. In addition to ABO grouping, most immunohematology testing includes evaluation of Rh typing tests for Rh(D) antigen. Blood cells that express Rh(D) antigen are Rh positive. Red blood cells found lacking Rh(D) are considered Rh negative. Rh typing is also important during pregnancy because of the potential for mother and fetus Rh incompatiblity. If the mother is Rh negative but the father is Rh positive, the fetus may be positive for the Rh antigen. As a result, the mother’s body could develop antibodies against the Rh antigen. These antibodies may cross the placenta and cause destruction of the baby’s red blood cells, resulting in a condition known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.


Blood typing is performed by agglutination testing. The patient's red cells are tested with anti-A and anti-B antibodies for the presence or absence of agglutination (forward type, aka cell type), and patient's serum or plasma is tested against known A and B cells (reverse type, aka serum type, aka back type). Rh typing is done by testing patient red blood cells with anti-D antibody.


Transfusion of blood components of the correct blood type is necessary in order to prevent an adverse immunologic reaction. These reactions can range from very mild and sub-clinical to very severe or fatal, depending upon the components involved and condition of the recipient. Therefore, accurate assessment of both blood component and recipient ABO and Rh status is mandatory. The results of this testing will determine what blood group types a recipient may receive safely. For plasma components such as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets, it is important that the plasma be compatible with the recipient's red blood cells. This is always true for FFP which must be transfused in adequate volume to replace essential components in the recipient. For platelets, they can be concentrated if the ABO types are incompatible such that the amount of plasma given to the recipient is reduced to a minimum and the resulting hemolysis, if any, is reduced accordingly.

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Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) or serpin A6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA6 gene. It is an alpha-globulin.

This gene encodes an alpha-globulin protein with corticosteroid-binding properties. This is the major transport protein for glucocorticoids and progestins in the blood of most vertebrates. The gene localizes to a chromosomal region containing several closely related serine protease inhibitors (serpins) which have evolved by duplication events.


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Coxsackie viruses are enteroviruses belonging to the Picornavirus family, which is comprised of strains A and B as well as various serotypes A1-22, 24, and B1-6. Following incubation, a variety of well known diseases can manifest themselves within the host. Coxsackie A is commonly associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease, which primarily affects children younger than 10 years of age. In rare cases, Coxsackie infections may produce mild or subclinical symptoms, yet most infections trigger the onset of flu-like ailments but may include symptoms of other diseases along the lines of pneumonia, hepatitis, and meningitis.
A positive test result does not necessarily indicate current or recent infection as antibodies to Coxsackie species can be detected in uninfected individuals due to moderate passive exposure to infected hosts. It is, therefore, crucial that results from all Coxsackie A serologies correlate with the clinical history of the patient and all other data available to the physician. Samples collected at the early stage of infection (primarily in children) may not yield detectable antibodies. If a recent infection is suspected, a second specimen should be collected 10 to 20 days following the initial collection and tested.
Coxsackie A viruses are mainly associated with human hand, foot and mouth disease.
Coxsackie Bviruses can cause mild signs and symptoms, similar to a "cold", but these viruses also can lead to more serious diseases, including myocarditis (inflammation of the heart); pericarditis (inflammation of the sac lining the heart); meningitis (inflammation of the membranes that line the brain and spinal cord); and pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas).
Infection is common but most frequent in summer and autumn in temperate climates but all year round in the tropics. They tend to affect those under 16 but adults are also affected. Spread is usually from the faeco-oral route with an incubation period of 2 to 6 days.

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Creatine Kinase Total test is performed on a sample of blood to measure level of Creatine Kinase in blood.It is performed to confirm Myocardial Infraction, Myocardial Injury and Skeletal Muscle Injury and also during treatment and after treatment of Myocardial Infraction, Myocardial Injury and Skeletal Muscle Injury.

Also known as

CK - Total Spectrophotometric method Blood, CPK - Total, Creatine Phosphokinase Total Spectrophotometric method Blood, Serum CPK Test, CK - Total, Creatine Kinase Total, Creatine Phosphokinase Total, Serum CPK.

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Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) is a form of an enzyme found primarily in heart muscle cells. This test measures CK-MB in the blood.


CK-MB is one of three forms (isoenzymes) of the enzyme creatine kinase (CK). These isoenzymes include:


CK-MM (found in skeletal muscles and the heart)

CK-MB (found mostly in the heart, but small amounts found in skeletal muscles)

CK-BB (found mostly in the brain and smooth muscle, such as the intestines and uterus)

CK is released from muscle cells and is detectable in the blood whenever there is muscle damage. The small amount of CK that is normally in the blood is primarily CK-MM. CK-BB almost never gets into the blood, and CK-MB will typically only be present in significant amounts when the heart is damaged. A CK test measures the total level but does not distinguish between the three isoenzymes. When there is an increased amount of CK present in the blood, the CK-MB test can be used to determine whether it is due to heart damage or is more likely to be related to skeletal muscle injury.

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Creatinine is a waste product produced by muscles from the breakdown of a compound called creatine. Creatinine is removed from the body by the kidneys, which filter almost all of it from the blood and release it into the urine. This test measures the amount of creatinine in the blood and/or urine.


Creatine is part of the cycle that produces energy needed to contract muscles. Both creatine and creatinine are produced by the body at a relatively constant rate. Since almost all creatinine is filtered from the blood by the kidneys and released into the urine, blood levels are usually a good indicator of how well the kidneys are working. The quantity produced depends on the size of the person and their muscle mass. For this reason, creatinine concentrations will be slightly higher in men than in women and children.


Results from a blood creatinine test may be used in combination with results from other tests, such as a 24-hour urine creatinine test, to perform calculations that are used to evaluate kidney function. See the "How is it used?" section for more on these.

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Creatinine is a waste product produced by muscles from the breakdown of a compound called creatine. Creatinine is filtered from the blood by the kidneys and released into the urine. A creatinine clearance test measures creatinine levels in both a sample of blood and a sample of urine from a 24-hour urine collection. The results are used to calculate the amount of creatinine that has been cleared from the blood and passed into the urine. This calculation allows for a general evaluation of the amount of blood that is being filtered by the kidneys in a 24-hour time period.


The amount of creatinine produced in the body is dependent on muscle mass and is relatively constant for an individual. The amount of creatinine removed from the blood depends on both the filtering ability of the kidneys and the rate at which blood is carried to the kidneys.


The amount of blood filtered per minute by the kidneys is known as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). If the kidneys are damaged or diseased, or if blood circulation is slowed, then less creatinine will be removed from the blood and released into the urine and the GFR will be decreased.


GFR is difficult to measure directly. Therefore, it is recommended to estimate GFR by measuring the creatinine level in the blood and using the results in an equation to calculate estimated GFR. The calculation that takes into account several factors, such as age, gender and race of the person tested (see the article on Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate).


Another, less common way to estimate GFR is to calculate creatinine clearance. There are several versions of the creatinine clearance calculation. All of them include the measurement of the amount of creatinine in a blood sample collected just before or after the urine collection, the amount of creatinine in a 24-hour urine sample, and the 24-hour urine volume. Since the amount of creatinine produced depends on muscle mass, some calculations also use a correction factor that takes into account a person's body surface area (using their height and weight).

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C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase reactant, a protein made by the liver and released into the blood within a few hours after tissue injury, the start of an infection, or other cause of inflammation. Markedly increased levels are observed, for example, after trauma or a heart attack, with active or uncontrolled autoimmune disorders, and with serious bacterial infections like sepsis. The level of CRP can jump as much as a thousand-fold in response to inflammatory conditions, and its rise in the blood can precede pain, fever, or other clinical indicators. The test measures the amount of CRP in the blood and can be valuable in detecting inflammation due to acute conditions or in monitoring disease activity in chronic conditions.


The CRP test is not diagnostic, but it provides information to a health practitioner as to whether inflammation is present. This information can be used in conjunction with other factors such as signs and symptoms, physical exam, and other tests to determine if someone has an acute inflammatory condition or is experiencing a flare-up of a chronic inflammatory disease. The health practitioner may then follow up with further testing and treatment.


This standard CRP test is not to be confused with an hs-CRP test. These are two different tests that measure CRP and each test measures a different range of CRP level in the blood for different purposes:


The standard CRP test measures markedly high levels of the protein to detect diseases that cause significant inflammation. It measures CRP in the range from 10 to 1000 mg/L.

The hs-CRP test accurately detects lower levels of the protein than the standard CRP test and is used to evaluate individuals for risk of cardiovascular disease. It measures CRP in the range from 0.5 to 10 mg/L.

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Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans or C gattii. C neoformans has been isolated from several sites in nature, particularly weathered pigeon droppings. C gatti was previously only associated with tropical and subtropical regions; however, more recently this organism has also been found to be endemic in British Columbia and among the Pacific Northwest United States, and is associated with several different trees species.

Infection is usually acquired via the pulmonary route. Patients are often unaware of any exposure history. Approximately half of the patients with symptomatic disease have a predisposing immunosuppressive condition such as AIDS, steroid therapy, lymphoma, or sarcoidosis. Symptoms may include fever, headache, dizziness, ataxia, somnolence, and cough. While the majority of C neoformans infections occur in immunocompromised patient populations, C gattii is has a higher predilection for infection of healthy hosts.(1,2)

In addition to the lungs, cryptococcal infections frequently involve the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in patients infected with HIV. Mortality among patients with CNS cryptococcosis may approach 25% despite antibiotic therapy. Untreated CNS cryptococcosis is invariably fatal. Disseminated disease may affect any organ system and usually occurs in immunosuppressed individuals.

The presence of cryptococcal antigen in any body fluid (serum or cerebrospinal fluid) is indicative of cryptococcosis. Specimens that are positive by the lateral flow assay screen are automatically repeated with the same method utilizing dilutions in order to generate a titer value.

Disseminated infection is usually accompanied by a positive serum test.

Higher Cryptococcus antigen titers appear to correlate with more severe infections. Declining titers may indicate regression of infection. However, monitoring titers to cryptococcal antigen should not be used as a test of cure or to guide treatment decisions, as low level titers may persist for extended periods of time following appropriate therapy and the resolution of infection.(3)

A negative result does not preclude diagnosis of cryptococcosis, particularly if only a single specimen has been tested and the patient shows symptoms consistent with cryptococcosis. 

A positive result is indicative of cryptococcosis, however all test results should be reviewed in light of other clinical findings.

Testing should not be performed as a screening procedure for the general populations and should only be performed when clinical evidence suggests the diagnosis of cryptococcal disease.

Testing hemolyzed serum specimens may lead to false-negative results due to the high background color on the lateral flow assay strip.

Although rare, extremely high concentrations of cryptococcal antigen can result in weak test lines and in extreme instances, yield negative test results.



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Cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii. C. neoformans has been isolated from several sites in nature, particularly weathered pigeon droppings. C. gatti was previously only associated with tropical and subtropical regions; however, more recently this organism has also been found to be endemic in British Columbia and among the pacific northwest United States, and is associated with several different trees species.


Infection is usually acquired via the pulmonary route. Patients are often unaware of any exposure history. Approximately half of the patients with symptomatic disease have a predisposing immunosuppressive condition such as AIDS, steroid therapy, lymphoma, or sarcoidosis. Symptoms may include fever, headache, dizziness, ataxia, somnolence, and cough. While the majority of C. neoformans infections occur in immunocompromised patient populations, C.gattii is has a higher predilection for infection of healthy hosts.(1,2)


In addition to the lungs, cryptococcal infections frequently involve the central nervous system (CNS), particularly in patients infected with HIV. Mortality among patients with CNS cryptococcosis may approach 25% despite antibiotic therapy. Untreated CNS cryptococcosis is invariably fatal. Disseminated disease may affect any organ system and usually occurs in immunosuppressed individuals.

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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis is a set of laboratory tests that examine a sample of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. This fluid is an ultrafiltrate of plasma. It is clear and colorless. It contains glucose, electrolytes, amino acids, and other small molecules found in plasma, but has very little protein and few cells. CSF protects the central nervous system from injury, cushions it from the surrounding bone structure, provides it with nutrients, and removes waste products by returning them to the blood. CSF is withdrawn from the subarachnoid space through a needle by a procedure called a lumbar puncture or spinal tap. CSF analysis includes tests in clinical chemistry, hematology, immunology, and microbiology. Usually three or four tubes are collected. The first tube is used for chemical and/or serological analysis and the last two tubes are used for hematology and microbiology tests. This reduces the chances of a falsely elevated white cell count caused by a traumatic tap (bleeding into the subarachnoid space at the puncture site), and contamination of the bacterial culture by skin germs or flora.




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Blood typing is a screening test to determine blood groups and Rh antigen for blood transfusion and pregnancy. The four blood groups A, B, O, and AB are determined by the presence of antigens A and B or their absence (O) on a patient's red blood cells. In addition to ABO grouping, most immunohematology testing includes evaluation of Rh typing tests for Rh(D) antigen. Blood cells that express Rh(D) antigen are Rh positive. Red blood cells found lacking Rh(D) are considered Rh negative. Rh typing is also important during pregnancy because of the potential for mother and fetus Rh incompatiblity. If the mother is Rh negative but the father is Rh positive, the fetus may be positive for the Rh antigen. As a result, the mother’s body could develop antibodies against the Rh antigen. These antibodies may cross the placenta and cause destruction of the baby’s red blood cells, resulting in a condition known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.


Blood typing is performed by agglutination testing. The patient's red cells are tested with anti-A and anti-B antibodies for the presence or absence of agglutination (forward type, aka cell type), and patient's serum or plasma is tested against known A and B cells (reverse type, aka serum type, aka back type). Rh typing is done by testing patient red blood cells with anti-D antibody.


Transfusion of blood components of the correct blood type is necessary in order to prevent an adverse immunologic reaction. These reactions can range from very mild and sub-clinical to very severe or fatal, depending upon the components involved and condition of the recipient. Therefore, accurate assessment of both blood component and recipient ABO and Rh status is mandatory. The results of this testing will determine what blood group types a recipient may receive safely. For plasma components such as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets, it is important that the plasma be compatible with the recipient's red blood cells. This is always true for FFP which must be transfused in adequate volume to replace essential components in the recipient. For platelets, they can be concentrated if the ABO types are incompatible such that the amount of plasma given to the recipient is reduced to a minimum and the resulting hemolysis, if any, is reduced accordingly.

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Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited condition that mainly affects the lungs, pancreas, and sweat glands. It causes the production of thick, sticky mucus that leads to recurrent respiratory infections and blocks the release of pancreatic enzymes, inhibiting the digestion of protein and fat.


CF is one of the most common recessive genetic disorders in the U.S. A recessive disorder occurs when each of the two copies of a gene (one inherited from each parent) is abnormal. According to Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, it is estimated that 30,000 Americans are living with CF and approximately 1,000 new cases are diagnosed every year. Most people with CF are diagnosed in early childhood.


CF is caused by mutations (disease-causing variations in the DNA) in a gene called CFTR located on chromosome seven. More than 2,000 different CF mutations have been identified so far, but only a few are common. The majority of cystic fibrosis cases in the U.S. are caused by a mutation called deltaF508 (F508).


The CFTR gene is responsible for the normal production of a protein called cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In CF, the CFTR protein may be dysfunctional or totally absent. With dysfunctional or absent CFTR, chloride does not move out of the ducts into surrounding fluid, resulting in the production of thick, sticky mucus. Since CFTR levels are usually highest in the epithelial cells lining the internal surfaces of the bronchi of the lungs, pancreas, sweat glands, salivary glands, intestine, and reproductive organs, these are the areas most affected by CF.


Most people with CF develop respiratory and pancreatic symptoms early in life, although the severity of signs and symptoms varies from person to person, even in those carrying the exact same mutations. The majority of adult men with CF are also infertile due to missing or underdeveloped vas deferens, the tubules that transport sperm from the testicles.


An individual with one normal CFTR gene copy and one abnormal gene copy is a CF carrier. Carriers do not generally have symptoms, but they may pass a copy of their abnormal gene on to their children. Both biological parents must either be carriers or have CF in order for their child to have CF.


The risk associated with carrying an abnormal CF gene can be generally associated with a person's ethnic background. Caucasians from Northern Europe and Ashkenazi Jews have the highest incidence of CF with about 1 in 25 individuals being CF carriers.

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Cysticercosis is caused by infection with the larval form (cysticercus) of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis most commonly result from the lodging of cysticerci in brain and neural tissue. Common symptoms of neurocysticercosis include seizures and convulsions. Antibodies from other parasitic infections, particularly echinococcosis, may crossreact in the cysticercus IgG ELISA. Confirmation of positive ELISA results by the Cysticercosis IgG antibody western blot (test code 34279X) is recommended.



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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus that occurs widely throughout the population but rarely causes symptoms. In the United States, as many as 50-85% of adults have been infected with CMV. Most people are infected as children or as young adults and do not experience any significant symptoms or health problems.


CMV testing involves either a measurement of CMV antibodies, immune proteins produced in response to CMV exposure, or the detection of the virus itself. The virus can be identified during an active infection by culturing CMV or by detecting the virus's genetic material (its DNA) in a fluid or tissue sample.


CMV is found in many body fluids during an active infection, including saliva, urine, blood, breast milk, semen, vaginal secretions, and cerebrospinal fluid. It is easily transmitted to others through close physical contact or by contact with infected objects, such as diapers or toys. After the initial "primary" infection has resolved, CMV becomes dormant or latent, like other members of the herpes family. Cytomegalovirus remains in a person for the rest of the person's life without causing any symptoms unless the person's immune system is significantly weakened. If this happens, the virus can reactivate.


CMV can cause notable health problems in three situations:


In young adults, primary CMV infection may cause a flu-like or mononucleosis-type illness. This condition, which causes symptoms such as extreme fatigue, fever, chills, body aches and/or headaches, usually resolves within a few weeks. 

In infants, primary CMV infection may cause serious physical and developmental problems. This occurs when a woman is infected for the first time (primary infection) during pregnancy and then passes the infection to her developing baby across the placenta. Most newborns (about 90%) who are infected appear healthy at birth but may develop hearing or vision problems, pneumonia, seizures, and/or delayed mental development a few months later. A few babies may be stillborn, while others may have symptoms at birth such as jaundice, anemia, an enlarged spleen or liver, and a small head.

In those with weakened immune systems, CMV could cause serious illness and death. This includes those with HIV/AIDS, those who have had organ or bone marrow transplants, and those undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer. People with compromised immune systems who become infected for the first time (primary infection) might experience the most severe symptoms and their CMV infection may remain active. Those who have been exposed to CMV previously may reactivate their infection. This could affect their eyes (causing inflammation of the retina, which can lead to blindness), digestive tract (causing bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain), lungs (causing pneumonia with a non-productive cough and shortness of breath), and brain (causing encephalitis). There can also be spleen and liver involvement, and those who have had organ or bone marrow transplants may experience some degree of rejection. Active CMV also further depresses the immune system, allowing other secondary infections such as fungal infections, to occur.

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A chiropractor is a health care professional focused on the diagnosis and treatment of neuromuscular disorders, with an emphasis on treatment through manual adjustment and/or manipulation of the spine.

Most chiropractors seek to reduce pain and improve the functionality of patients as well as to educate them on how they can account for their own health via exercise, ergonomics and other therapies to treat back pain.

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A lot of people eat a gluten-free diet. For people with celiac disease, it’s a must.

About 3 million Americans have celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder that’s triggered when they eat gluten. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley, rye, and other grains. It is the protein that makes dough elastic and gives bread its chewy texture.

But when someone with celiac disease eats something with gluten, their body overreacts to the protein and damages their villi, which are very small finger-like projections found along the wall of the small intestine.

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The Food and Nutrition Service administers several programs that provide healthy food to children including the National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, Child and Adult Care Food Program, Summer Food Service Program, Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program, and Special Milk Program.

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The onset of pain is a symptom of illness or injury in the part of the body that is experiencing the pain. The sudden onset of pain is called acute pain. Acute pain gets a person's attention and prompts him or her to take action to prevent further worsening of the condition causing the pain. This could be a simple action such as the reflex that makes a person jerk their hand off a hot stove, or it could be more complex such as cooling, resting, or elevating an injured ankle. Moreover, the pain could prompt the person to see a doctor. Chronic pain is pain that persists over time (6 months or longer) and typically results from long-standing (chronic) medical conditions or damage to the body.

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Heart and blood vessel disease — also called heart disease — includes numerous problems, many of which are related to a process called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a condition that develops when a substance called plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries. This buildup narrows the arteries, making it harder for blood to flow through. If a blood clot forms, it can stop the blood flow. This can cause a heart attack or stroke.

A heart attack occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is blocked by a blood clot. If this clot cuts off the blood flow completely, the part of the heart muscle supplied by that artery begins to die. Most people survive their first heart attack and return to their normal lives to enjoy many more years of productive activity. But having a heart attack does mean you have to make some changes. 

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HCA Urgent Care teams will provide prompt examination, investigation and treatment for most respiratory or chest complaints.

In our urgent care facilities, we can perform blood tests, X-rays and specialist CT scans within the hospital and have fast access to a network of senior private Consultants who specialise in Respiratory conditions or Cardiology problems to who we can refer you to be seen either on that day or within a few days depending on the urgency of the problem.

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Use a humidifier or vaporizer.

Take long showers or breathe in steam from a pot of warm (but not too hot) water.

Drink lots of fluids. 

Use a nasal saline spray. 

Try a Neti pot, nasal irrigator, or bulb syringe.

Sit a warm, wet towel on your face.

Prop yourself up.

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Cellulite is a term for lumpy, dimpled flesh on the thighs, hips, buttocks and abdomen. It's most common in adolescent and adult women. Although not a serious medical condition, your cellulite might embarrass you.

Many cellulite treatments, including massages or cellulite creams, advertise remarkable results. Most of these treatments don't live up to their claims. Researchers are studying possible medical treatments. In the meantime, you can take steps to slightly improve the appearance of cellulite.

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A calcium blood test measures the amount of calcium in your blood. Calcium is one of the most important minerals in your body. You need calcium for healthy bones and teeth. Calcium is also essential for proper functioning of your nerves, muscles, and heart. About 99% of your body's calcium is stored in your bones. The remaining 1% circulates in the blood. If there is too much or too little calcium in the blood, it may be a sign of bone diseasethyroid diseasekidney disease, or other medical conditions.

Other names: total calcium, ionized calcium

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A calcium in urine test measures the amount of calcium in your urine. Calcium is one of the most important minerals in your body. You need calcium for healthy bones and teeth. Calcium is also essential for proper functioning of your nerves, muscles, and heart. Almost all of your body's calcium is stored in your bones. A small amount circulates in the blood, and the remainder is filtered by the kidneys and passed into your urine. If urine calcium levels are too high or too low, it may mean you have a medical condition, such as kidney disease or kidney stones. Kidney stones are hard, pebble-like substances that can form in one or both kidneys when calcium or other minerals build up in the urine. Most kidney stones are formed from calcium.

Too much or too little calcium in the blood can also indicate a kidney disorder, as well as certain bone diseases, and other medical problems. So if you have symptoms of one of these disorders, your health care provider may order a calcium blood test, along with a calcium in urine test. In addition, a calcium blood test is often included as part of a regular check-up.

Other names: urinalysis (calcium)

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Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an odorless, colorless gas. It is a waste product made by your body. Your blood carries carbon dioxide to your lungs. You breathe out carbon dioxide and breathe in oxygen all day, every day, without thinking about it. A CO2 blood test measures the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood. Too much or too little carbon dioxide in the blood can indicate a health problem.

Other names: carbon dioxide content, CO2 content, carbon dioxide blood test, bicarbonate blood test, bicarbonate test, total CO2; TCO2; carbon dioxide content; CO2 content; bicarb; HCO3

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Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It is a bacterial infection spread through vaginal, oral, or anal sex with an infected person. Many people with chlamydia have no symptoms, so someone may spread the disease without even knowing they are infected. A chlamydia test looks for the presence of chlamydia bacteria in your body. The disease is easily treated with antibiotics. But if it's not treated, chlamydia can cause serious complications, including infertility in women and swelling of the urethra in men.

Other names: Chlamydia NAAT or NAT, Chlamydia/GC STD Panel

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A chloride blood test measures the amount of chloride in your blood. Chloride is a type of electrolyte. Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals that help control the amount of fluids and the balance of acids and bases in your body. Chloride is often measured along with other electrolytes to diagnose or monitor conditions such as kidney diseaseheart failureliver disease, and high blood pressure.

Other names: CI, Serum chloride

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Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that's found in your blood and every cell of your body. You need some cholesterol to keep your cells and organs healthy. Your liver makes all the cholesterol your body needs. But you can also get cholesterol from the foods you eat, especially meat, eggs, poultry, and dairy products. Foods that are high in dietary fat can also make your liver produce more cholesterol.

There are two main types of cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol. A cholesterol test is a blood test that measures the amount of each type of cholesterol and certain fats in your blood.

Too much LDL cholesterol in your blood may put you at risk for heart disease and other serious conditions. High LDL levels can cause the build-up of plaque, a fatty substance that narrows the arteries and blocks blood from flowing normally. When blood flow to the heart is blocked, it can cause a heart attack. When blood flow to the brain is blocked, it can lead to stroke and peripheral artery disease.

Other names for a cholesterol test: Lipid profile, Lipid panel

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A complete blood count or CBC is a blood test that measures many different parts and features of your blood, including:

  • Red blood cells, which carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body
  • White blood cells, which fight infection. There are five major types of white blood cells. A CBC test measures the total number of white cells in your blood. A test called a CBC with differentialalso measures the number of each type of these white blood cells
  • Platelets, which help your blood to clot and stop bleeding
  • Hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs and to the rest of your body
  • Hematocrit, a measurement of how much of your blood is made up of red blood

A complete blood count may also include measurements of chemicals and other substances in your blood. These results can give your health care provider important information about your overall health and risk for certain diseases.

Other names for a complete blood count: CBC, full blood count, blood cell count

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Cortisol is a hormone that affects almost every organ and tissue in your body. It plays an important role in helping you to:


  • Respond to stress
  • Fight infection
  • Regulate blood sugar
  • Maintain blood pressure
  • Regulate metabolism, the process of how your body uses food and energy

Cortisol is made by your adrenal glands, two small glands located above the kidneys. A cortisol test measures the level of cortisol in your blood, urine, or saliva. Blood tests are the most common way of measuring cortisol. If your cortisol levels are too high or too low, it may mean you have a disorder of your adrenal glands. These disorders can be serious if not treated.

Other names: urinary cortisol, salivary cortisol, free cortisol, dexamethasone suppression test, DST, ACTH stimulation test, blood cortisol, plasma cortisol, plasma

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Your urine contains many chemicals. Sometimes these chemicals form solids, called crystals. A crystals in urine test looks at the amount, size, and type of crystals in your urine. It's normal to have a few small urine crystals. Larger crystals or specific types of crystals can become kidney stones. Kidney stones are hard, pebble-like substances that can get stuck in the kidneys. A stone can be as small as a grain of sand, as big as a pea, or even larger. While kidney stones rarely cause serious damage, they can be very painful.

Other names: urinalysis (crystals) microscopic urine analysis, microscopic examination of urine

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A significant association exists between rhinitis (allergic), asthma, and chronic sinusitis (inflammation of the sinuses for more than 12 weeks) in some individuals. Some evidence suggests that up to 3 of every 5 patients have multiple conditions.


Post-nasal drip is mucus accumulation in the back of the nose and throat leading to, or giving the sensation of, mucus dripping downward from the back of the nose. One of the most common characteristics of chronic rhinitis is post-nasal drip. Post-nasal drip may lead to chronic sore throat, chronic cough, or throat clearing. Post-nasal drip can be caused by excessive or thick mucus secretions or impairment in the normal clearance of mucus from the nose and throat.

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Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.


Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cervical cancer.


When exposed to HPV, a woman's immune system typically prevents the virus from doing harm. In a small group of women, however, the virus survives for years, contributing to the process that causes some cells on the surface of the cervix to become cancer cells.


You can reduce your risk of developing cervical cancer by having screening tests and receiving a vaccine that protects against HPV infection.

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Colon polyps are growths that occur on the inner lining of the large intestine (colon) and usually protrude into the colon. Polyps form when the genetic material within the cells lining the colon changes and becomes abnormal (mutates). Normally, the immature cells lining the colon are programmed to divide (multiply), mature, and then die in a very consistent and timely fashion. However, the genetic changes that occur in the lining cells prevents the cells from maturing, and the cells do not die. This leads to an accumulation of immature, genetically abnormal cells, which eventually results in the formation of polyps. The mutations may occur as a sporadic event after birth or they may be present from before birth.

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A chronic cough is a cough that lasts eight weeks or longer in adults, or four weeks in children.


A chronic cough is more than just an annoyance. A chronic cough can interrupt your sleep and leave you feeling exhausted. Severe cases of chronic cough can cause vomiting, lightheadedness and even rib fractures.


While it can sometimes be difficult to pinpoint the problem that's triggering a chronic cough, the most common causes are tobacco use, postnasal drip, asthma and acid reflux. Fortunately, chronic cough typically disappears once the underlying problem is treated.

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A cataract is an eye disease in which the clear lens of the eye becomes cloudy or opaque, causing a decrease in vision. Although the word cataract to describe this condition has been part of the English language since only the 15th century, the eye disease has been recognized and surgically treated since ancient times.


The lens is a portion of the eye that is normally clear. It focuses rays of light entering the eye onto the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. In order to get a clear image onto the retina, the portions of the eye in front of the retina, including the lens, must be clear and transparent. The light striking the retina initiates a chemical reaction within the retina. The chemical reaction, in turn, initiates an electrical response which is carried to the brain through the optic nerve. The brain then interprets what the eye sees.


In a normal eye, light passes through the transparent lens to the retina. The lens must be clear for the retina to receive a sharp image. If the lens is cloudy from a cataract, the image striking the retina will be blurry or distorted and the vision will be blurry. The extent of the visual disturbance is dependent upon the degree of cloudiness of the lens.


Most cataracts are related to aging. Cataracts are very common in older people. By age 80, more than half of all Americans either have some degree of cataract or have already undergone cataract surgery in one or both eyes. By age 95, this percentage increases to almost 100%. A cataract can occur in either or both eyes. Individuals with a cataract in one eye usually go on to develop a cataract in the other eye as well. A cataract is not contagious and cannot spread from one eye to the other or from person to person. Cataracts do not cause the eye to tear abnormally. They are neither painful nor make the eye itchy or red.

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Cirrhosis is a complication of many liver diseases characterized by abnormal structure and function of the liver. The diseases that lead to cirrhosis do so because they injure and kill liver cells, after which the inflammation and repair that is associated with the dying liver cells causes scar tissue to form. The liver cells that do not die multiply in an attempt to replace the cells that have died. This results in clusters of newly-formed liver cells (regenerative nodules) within the scar tissue. There are many causes of cirrhosis including chemicals (such as alcohol, fat, and certain medications), viruses, toxic metals (such as iron and copper that accumulate in the liver as a result of genetic diseases), and autoimmune liver disease in which the body's immune system attacks the liver.

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Calluses are hard and rough-feeling areas of skin that can develop on hands, feet or anywhere there is repeated friction - even on a violinist's chin. Like corns, calluses have several variants. The common callus usually occurs when there has been a lot of rubbing against the hands or feet. A plantar callus is found on the bottom of the foot.Calluses are hard and rough-feeling areas of skin that can develop on hands, feet or anywhere there is repeated friction - even on a violinist's chin. Like corns, calluses have several variants. The common callus usually occurs when there has been a lot of rubbing against the hands or feet. A plantar callus is found on the bottom of the foot.

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, refractory (non-reversible) asthma, and some forms of bronchiectasis. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessness.

Many people mistake their increased breathlessness and coughing as a normal part of aging. In the early stages of the disease, you may not notice the symptoms. COPD can develop for years without noticeable shortness of breath. You begin to see the symptoms in the more developed stages of the disease. That’s why it is important that you talk to your doctor as soon as you notice any of these symptoms. Ask your doctor about taking a spirometry test.


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 Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division that leads to abnormal tissue growth. Many a times, people often use the terms cancer and tumor synonymously. But all tumours are not cancerous.

There are two main types of tumors: malignant tumours and benign tumours:-

Malignant tumours: These are the cancerous cells that can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue, including organs. The cancer can spread to distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. Not all tumours are cancerous.

Benign tumours:  These types of tumours do not grow uncontrollably or do not invade neighboring tissues. They do not spread throughout the body.

There are over 200 different known cancers that affect humans. Most of the cancers are named from where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is. Most treatment plans may include surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy.


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A fungus is a microscopic organism that typically lives harmlessly in people. However, if your inner ecosystem is out of balance and your immunity is weakened, you are at risk for a fungal infection, like Candida (also known as a yeast infection).

A single-cell organism, Candida reproduces asexually and thrives on some of the body's byproducts: dead tissue and sugars from food. Unless its environment is altered and its source of food is eliminated, it quickly monopolizes entire body systems, such as the digestive tract, and causes moderate to severe symptoms.

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Canker sores, also called aphthous ulcers, are small, shallow lesions that develop on the soft tissues in your mouth or at the base of your gums. Unlike cold sores, canker sores don't occur on the surface of your lips and they aren't contagious. They can be painful, however, and can make eating and talking difficult.

Most canker sores go away on their own in a week or two. Check with your doctor or dentist if you have unusually large or painful canker sores or canker sores that don't seem to heal.

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Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle. It affects any age group and is a serious lifelong condition.

Cardiomyopathy means your heart is unable to pump an adequate supply of blood around the body. 

As cardiomyopathy progresses your heart becomes weaker. 

Some types of cardiomyopathy can cause an irregular heart beat, because the heart muscle becomes stretched.

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Cannabidiol—CBD—is a cannabis compound that has significant medical benefits, but does not make people feel “stoned” and can actually counteract the psychoactivity of THC. The fact that CBD-rich cannabis is non-psychoactive or less psychoactive than THC-dominant strains makes it an appealing option for patients looking for relief from inflammation, pain, anxiety, psychosis, seizures, spasms, and other conditions without disconcerting feelings of lethargy or dysphoria.

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Cellulite affects about 80% of all women. A poor diet, lack of physical activity, hormone changes, genetics and overall body fat are the main reasons for the ugly dimples. Women typically store this excess fat in the buttocks and hip area. Fortunately, there are many things you can do to get rid of it.

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Cellulitis (sel-u-LIE-tis) is a common, potentially serious bacterial skin infection. Cellulitis appears as a swollen, red area of skin that feels hot and tender. It can spread rapidly to other parts of the body. Cellulitis isn't usually spread from person to person.

Skin on lower legs is most commonly affected, though cellulitis can occur anywhere on your body or face. Cellulitis might affect only your skin's surface. Or it might also affect tissues underlying your skin and can spread to your lymph nodes and bloodstream.

Left untreated, the spreading infection can rapidly turn life-threatening. It's important to seek immediate medical attention if cellulitis symptoms occur.

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Cervical spondylosis is a general term for age-related wear and tear affecting the spinal disks in your neck. As the disks dehydrate and shrink, signs of osteoarthritis develop, including bony projections along the edges of bones (bone spurs).

Cervical spondylosis is very common and worsens with age. More than 85 percent of people older than age 60 are affected by cervical spondylosis.

Most people experience no symptoms from these problems. When symptoms do occur, nonsurgical treatments often are effective.

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Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating disorder characterized by extreme fatigue or tiredness that doesn’t go away with rest and can’t be explained by an underlying medical condition. CFS can also be referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) or systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID).

The causes of CFS aren’t well-understood. Some theories include viral infection, psychological stress, or a combination of factors. Because no single cause has been identified, and because many other illnesses produce similar symptoms, CFS can be difficult to diagnose. There are no tests for CFS, so your doctor will have to rule out other causes for your fatigue.

While CFS has in the past been a controversial diagnosis, it’s now widely accepted as a real medical condition. CFS can affect anyone, though it’s most common among women in their 40s and 50s. There is currently no cure, so treatment for CFS focuses on relieving your symptoms.

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A chalazion is a swollen bump on the eyelid. It happens when the eyelid’s oil gland clogs up. It may start as an internal hordeolum (stye). At first, you might not know you have a chalazion as there is little or no pain. But as it grows, your eyelid may get red, swollen, and sometimes tender to touch. If the chalazion gets large, it can press on your eye and cause blurry vision. Rarely, the whole eyelid might swell.

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Chapped lips occur when the skin on the lips becomes very dry. The lips may hurt, crack, and even bleed in severe cases. According to the Mayo Clinic, exposure to sun, wind, and cold, dry air can cause chapped lips. Other causes include breathing with your mouth open, frequently licking your lips, sensitivity to skin-care products, and dehydration. You can heal chapped lips quickly, usually in less than a week, by moisturizing your lips and protecting them from additional dryness.

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When you breathe, you inhale particles that are floating around in the air, like dust, allergens, bacteria or viruses. Usually these particles are trapped in the mucus that covers the mucus membranes of your nose and airways. Then tiny hairs called cilia transport the mucus (with the trapped particles) toward the throat. From there it can either be coughed out (also called “expectorating”) or swallowed.

But sometimes, particles like dust can irritate your mucus membranes or a virus or bacteria can cause an infection. This causes inflammation and results in extra mucus in your airways. This extra mucus is one of the ways your body tries to remove an irritant.

When there’s more (and thicker) mucus in your airways, your body may not be able to get rid of it in the usual ways (i.e. coughing it up or swallowing it). This is why you may start coughing more. Coughing is a way for your body to get rid of irritants in your airways or an accumulation of extra mucus that’s stuck inside your lungs.

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Chest pain. The first thing you may think of is heart attack. Certainly chest pain is not something to ignore. But you should know that it has many possible causes. In fact, as much as a quarter of the U.S. population experiences chest pain that is not related to the heart. Chest pain may also be caused by problems in your lungs, esophagus, muscles, ribs, or nerves, for example. Some of these conditions are serious and life threatening. Others are not. If you have unexplained chest pain, the only way to confirm its cause is to have a doctor evaluate you.

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Angina is a form of chest pain or discomfort as a result of reduced blood supply to heart muscles. This reduced blood supply results in reduced oxygen supply to heart muscles and as a result deficient waste removal from heart muscles leading to chest pain or discomfort. The most usual reason for this is some form of obstruction of coronary arteries due to medical conditions like atherosclerosis which hampers blood supply to heart muscles resulting in ischemia.

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Chickenpox, also called varicella, is characterized by itchy red blisters that appear all over the body. A virus causes this condition. It often affects children, and was so common it was considered a childhood rite of passage.

It’s very rare to have the chickenpox infection more than once. And since the chickenpox vaccine was introduced in the mid-1990s, cases have declined.

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Chilblains are small, itchy swellings on the skin that occur as a reaction to cold temperatures.

They most often affect the body's extremities, such as the toes, fingers, heels, ears and nose.

Chilblains can be uncomfortable, but rarely cause any permanent damage. They normally heal within a few weeks if further exposure to the cold is avoided.

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The term “chills” refers to a feeling of being cold without an apparent cause. You get this feeling when your muscles repeatedly expand and contract. Chills can occur with a fever and cause shivering or shaking.

Your body chills can be constant. Each episode can last for as long as an hour. Your chills can also occur periodically and last for several minutes.

Some chills occur after exposure to a cold environment. They can also occur as a response to a bacterial or viral infection that causes a fever.

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Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae.Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food or drinking water contaminated with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae.

The disease is most common in places with poor sanitation, crowding, war, and famine. Common locations include parts of Africa, south Asia, and Latin America. If you are traveling to one of those areas, knowing the following cholera facts can help protect you and your family.

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Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage your kidneys and decrease their ability to keep you healthy by doing the jobs listed. If kidney disease gets worse, wastes can build to high levels in your blood and make you feel sick. You may develop complications like high blood pressure, anemia (low blood count), weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage. Also, kidney disease increases your risk of having heart and blood vessel disease. These problems may happen slowly over a long period of time. Chronic kidney disease may be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure and other disorders. Early detection and treatment can often keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse. When kidney disease progresses, it may eventually lead to kidney failure, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.

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Chubby Cheeks is a nursery rhyme about rosy lips, curly hair and lovely blue eyes... But who is this beauty? Sing the song (or read the lyrics below) to find out!

Chubby Cheeks can be used with both boys and girls, but it actually a typical "girlish" nursery rhyme. Why not use it as a mother-daughter-thing? Try to sing "Chubby Cheek" loud next time you are driving car with your daughter? Or sing it and dance next time you are hoime alone? Good luck - and enjoy!

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Dirt or any sort of foreign object in your eyes can aggravate your eyes and cause you to tear up. Your eyes may become painful,and your vision blurry. If you have gotten something in your eye, it is important to know the best and safest ways to get it out, as well as knowing when to see a medical professional for further assistance.

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Your skin care regimen and lifestyle habits are the primary predictors of your skin’s health. Some of the leading factors that take a toll on the quality and texture of your skin are stress, lack of sleep, poor nutrition, pollution, damage from the sun’s ultraviolet rays, excessive smoking and drinking alcohol.

There are thousands of skin and beauty care products that promise to give you clear and glowing skin. Instead of relying on these products, you can try some simple and easy home remedies to improve the overall health and appearance of your skin.

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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a cancer that affects a type of white blood cell called a "lymphocyte."

Lymphocytes help your body fight infection. They're made in the soft center of your bones, called the marrow. If you have CLL, your body makes an abnormally high number of lymphocytes that aren't working right.

More adults get CLL than any other type of leukemia. It usually grows slowly, so you may not have symptoms for years.

Some people never need treatment, but if you do, it can slow the disease and ease symptoms. People who get medical care live longer today, because doctors are diagnosing CLL earlier.

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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a typically slow-growing cancer which begins in lymphocytes in the bone marrow and extends into the blood. It can also spread to lymph nodes and organs such as the liver and spleen. CLL develops when too many abnormal lymphocytes grow, crowding out normal blood cells and making it difficult for the body to fight infection.

The term "chronic" means that the disease develops slowly. The abnormal lymphocytes take longer to develop and multiply. A disease like CLL, therefore, may take several years before it becomes serious. Comparatively, the progression of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is very quick. ALL may advance in a much shorter period.

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Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood rich in oxygen throughout your body. They go to your brain as well as to the tips of your toes. Healthy arteries have smooth inner walls and blood flows through them easily. Some people, however, develop clogged arteries. Clogged arteries result from a buildup of a substance called plaque on the inner walls of the arteries. Arterial plaque can reduce blood flow or, in some instances, block it altogether.

Clogged arteries greatly increase the likelihood of heart attack, stroke, and even death. Because of these dangers, it is important to be aware, no matter how old you are, of the causes of artery plaque and treatment strategies to prevent serious consequences.

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Even though a clogged ear may not cause pain or discomfort, muffled sounds and straining to hear can be a real nuisance. Your ear may unblock on its own within hours or days. But several home remedies and medications can provide fast relief.

As you treat a clogged ear, it’s also helpful to identify possible causes of the blockage. By doing so, you and your doctor can determine the best way to treat the clog and prevent future problems.

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your skin is battling sweat, pollution, and pore-clogging face makeup. If you have oily or acne-prone skin, keeping your pores spick and span is especially hard work. After all, in daily life, are so many things trying to congest your pores, including many skincare ingredients and your body’s natural oil production. See, a pore (or follicle) is “a duct in the skin that is attached to the sebaceous glands that produce sebum,” explains esthetician Renée Rouleau. Oily skin types are more prone to experience blockages in their pores, which causes bacteria to thrive, leading to whiteheads, blackheads, and papules

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