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A sacral dimple is a small, usually shallow indentation in the small of the back, just above or within the crease of the buttocks.


About 3 to 8 percent of the population has a sacral dimple. A very small percentage of people with a sacral dimple can have spinal abnormalities.


In most cases, a sacral dimple causes no problems and isn’t associated with any health risks.

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Sacroiliitis (say-kroe-il-e-I-tis) is an inflammation of one or both of your sacroiliac joints — situated where your lower spine and pelvis connect. Sacroiliitis can cause pain in your buttocks or lower back, and can extend down one or both legs. Prolonged standing or stair climbing can worsen the pain.


Sacroiliitis can be difficult to diagnose, because it can be mistaken for other causes of low back pain. It's been linked to a group of diseases that cause inflammatory arthritis of the spine. Treatment might involve physical therapy and medications.

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Salivary gland tumors are rare types of tumors that begin in the salivary glands.


Salivary gland tumors can begin in any of the salivary glands in your mouth, neck or throat. Salivary glands make saliva, which aids in digestion, keeps your mouth moist and supports healthy teeth.


You have three pairs of major salivary glands under and behind your jaw — parotid, sublingual and submandibular. Many other tiny salivary glands are in your lips, inside your cheeks, and throughout your mouth and throat.


Salivary gland tumors most commonly occur in the parotid gland, accounting for nearly 85 percent of all salivary gland tumors. Approximately 25 percent of parotid tumors are cancerous (malignant).


Treatment for salivary gland tumors often involves surgery. Treatments for salivary gland tumors may also include radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

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Salmonella infection (salmonellosis) is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract. Salmonella bacteria typically live in animal and human intestines and are shed through feces. Humans become infected most frequently through contaminated water or food.


Typically, people with salmonella infection have no symptoms. Others develop diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps within eight to 72 hours. Most healthy people recover within a few days without specific treatment.


In some cases, the diarrhea associated with salmonella infection can be so dehydrating as to require prompt medical attention. Life-threatening complications also may develop if the infection spreads beyond your intestines. Your risk of acquiring salmonella infection is higher if you travel to countries with poor sanitation.

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Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organs in the body, but mostly the lungs and lymph glands. In people with sarcoidosis, abnormal masses or nodules (called granulomas) consisting of inflamed tissues form in certain organs of the body. These granulomas may alter the normal structure and possibly the function of the affected organ(s).

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Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria. This illness usually occurs in a few people (about 10%) who have strep throat (streptococcal pharyngitis) and occasionally streptococcal skin infections or even wound infections. Scarlet fever is also known as scarlatina in the older articles; group A Streptococcus (for example, Streptococcus pyogenes) is often shortened to read as "group A strep" or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS). Scarlet fever is mainly known for its sunburned-skin-colored sandpaper-like skin rash that is associated with fever.


Outbreaks occur. England reported a 50-year high number of individuals diagnosed with the disease (over 19,206) in 2016

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Schizoaffective disorder is a mental illness that involves persistent psychotic symptoms, like hallucinations or delusions, occurring together with mood problems of depressive, manic, or mixed episodes. The term schizoaffective was first used in 1933 by Jacob Kasanin and has been included in every edition of the mental health diagnostic manual, called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), since 1952. Statistics on how often this condition occurs range from 0.32% in the general United States population up to as much as 9% of psychiatrically hospitalized people. Schizoaffective disorder is thought to occur at least as often as schizophrenia and less often than 

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Schizoid personality disorder is an uncommon condition in which people avoid social activities and consistently shy away from interaction with others. They also have a limited range of emotional expression.


If you have schizoid personality disorder, you may be seen as a loner or dismissive of others, and you may lack the desire or skill to form close personal relationships. Because you don't tend to show emotion, you may appear as though you don't care about others or what's going on around you.


The cause of schizoid personality disorder is unknown. Talk therapy, and in some cases medications, can help.

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People with schizotypal personality disorder are often described as odd or eccentric and usually have few, if any, close relationships. They generally don't understand how relationships form or the impact of their behavior on others. They may also misinterpret others' motivations and behaviors and develop significant distrust of others.


These problems may lead to severe anxiety and a tendency to turn inward in social situations, as the person with schizotypal personality disorder responds inappropriately to social cues and holds peculiar beliefs.


Schizotypal personality disorder typically is diagnosed in early adulthood and is likely to endure, though treatment, such as medications and therapy, can improve symptoms.

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A schwannoma is a type of nerve tumor of the nerve sheath. It's the most common type of benign peripheral nerve tumor in adults. It can occur anywhere in your body, at any age.


A schwannoma typically comes from a single bundle (fascicle) within the main nerve and displaces the rest of the nerve. When a schwannoma grows larger, more fascicles are affected, making removal more difficult. In general, a schwannoma grows slowly.


If you develop a schwannoma in an arm or leg, you may notice a painless lump. Schwannomas are rarely cancerous, but they can lead to nerve damage and loss of muscle control. See your doctor if you have any unusual lumps or numbness.

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Sclerosing mesenteritis, also called mesenteric panniculitis, occurs when the tissue (mesentery) that holds the small intestines in place becomes inflamed and forms scar tissue. Sclerosing mesenteritis is rare, and it's not clear what causes it.


Sclerosing mesenteritis can cause abdominal pain, vomiting, bloating, diarrhea and fever. But some people experience no signs and symptoms and may never need treatment.


In rare cases, scar tissue formed by sclerosing mesenteritis can block food from moving through your digestive tract. In this case, you may need surgery.

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Scoliosis is a disorder that causes an abnormal curve of the spine, or backbone. The spine has normal curves when looking from the side, but it should appear straight when looking from the front. Kyphosis is a curve in the spine seen from the side in which the spine is bent forward. There is a normal kyphosis in the middle (thoracic) spine. Lordosis is a curve seen from the side in which the spine is bent backward. There is a normal lordosis in the upper (cervical) spine and the lower (lumbar) spine. People with scoliosis develop additional curves to either side of the body, and the bones of the spine twist on each other, forming a "C" or an "S" shape in the spine.


Scoliosis is about two times more common in girls than boys. It can be seen at any age, but it is most common in those over about 10 years of age. Scoliosis is hereditary in that people with scoliosis are more likely to have children with scoliosis; however, there is no correlation between the severity of the curves from one generation to the next.

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Scorpions use their sting to capture prey and to defend themselves. They hunt at night and will not sting unless provoked or they feel threatened. All scorpions use their stings as a defense mechanism or a weapon to incapacitate prey. But the potency to humans of stings varies, depending on the scorpion species. One thing that all scorpions have in common is that the sting possesses venom, which usually is neurotoxic in nature.






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The scrotum contains the male testes, the two male sex organs that produce and store semen as well as the hormone testosterone. A scrotal mass is a lump or bulge that can be felt in the scrotum, and may result from a variety of factors There are several kinds of scrotal masses:


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Sebaceous glands are part of epidermal appendages. Neoplasms of the sebaceous glands may be benign, such as sebaceous hyperplasia or sebaceous gland adenomas. The malignant sebaceous gland carcinoma most commonly arises in the periocular area. Fewer than 120 cases of sebaceous cell carcinoma have been reported at extraocular sites. The most common site of origin is the meibomian glands of the eyelids, leading to the term meibomian gland carcinoma. However, this neoplasm can occur in other sebaceous glands, such as in the caruncle, the glands of Zeis, and in the eyebrow. Sebaceous cell carcinoma is a lethal eyelid malignancy and can masquerade as benign conditions. Error or delay in diagnosis is common, and this tumor carries a significant mortality rate with metastasis.


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Seborrheic (seb-o-REE-ik) dermatitis is a common skin condition that mainly affects your scalp. It causes scaly patches, red skin and stubborn dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis can also affect oily areas of the body, such as the face, sides of the nose, eyebrows, ears, eyelids and chest. Seborrheic dermatitis may go away without treatment. Or you may need many repeated treatments before the symptoms go away. And they may return later. Daily cleansing with a gentle soap and shampoo can help reduce oiliness and dead skin buildup.Seborrheic dermatitis is also called dandruff, seborrheic eczema and seborrheic psoriasis. For infants, the condition is known as cradle cap and causes crusty, scaly patches on the scalp.


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Seborrheic keratosis (seb-o-REE-ik ker-uh-TOE-sis) is one of the most common noncancerous skin growths in older adults.A seborrheic keratosis usually appears as a brown, black or light tan growth on the face, chest, shoulders or back. The growth has a waxy, scaly, slightly elevated appearance. Seborrheic keratoses don't become cancerous and aren't thought to be related to sun exposure, but they can look like skin cancer. Seborrheic keratoses are normally painless and require no treatment. You may decide to have them removed if they become irritated by clothing or for cosmetic reasons.

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A seizure happens because of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. It may go nearly unnoticed. Or, in some severe cases, it may cause unconsciousness and convulsions, when your body shakes uncontrollably. Seizures usually come on suddenly. How long and severe they are can vary. A seizure can happen to you just once, or over and over. If they keep coming back, that's epilepsy, or a seizure disorder. Less than one in 10 people who have a seizure get epilepsy.


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Selective IgA deficiency is one of the most common types of PI. These individuals lack IgA, but usually have normal amounts of other immunoglobulins (antibodies). Many people go undiagnosed because they are never sick enough to be seen by a doctor, while others may develop a variety of severe problems.


Selective IgA Deficiency

IgA protects the body at surfaces that come in contact with the environment. These sites are the mucosal surfaces—mouth, ears, sinuses, nose, throat, airways within the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, and genitals.


IgA antibodies are transported in secretions to these mucosal surfaces and play a role in protecting them from infection, which is why IgA is known as a secretory antibody. Because the area of a person's mucosal surfaces is equal to 1.5 tennis courts, the importance of IgA in protecting these surfaces cannot be overstated.


Although people with selective IgA deficiency do not produce IgA, they do produce all the other immunoglobulins. In addition, the other aspects of their immune systems function properly.


The causes of selective IgA deficiency remain unknown. It is likely there are a variety of causes that vary from person to person.


Low serum IgA, like absent serum IgA, is relatively common. Most people with low serum IgA have no apparent illness; others have symptoms similar to 


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Nonsuicidal self-injury, often simply called self-injury, is the act of deliberately harming the surface of your own body, such as cutting or burning yourself. It's typically not meant as a suicide attempt. Rather, this type of self-injury is an unhealthy way to cope with emotional pain, intense anger and frustration. While self-injury may bring a momentary sense of calm and a release of tension, it's usually followed by guilt and shame and the return of painful emotions. Although life-threatening injuries are usually not intended, with self-injury comes the possibility of more serious and even fatal self-aggressive actions.


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A separated shoulder is an injury to the ligaments that hold your collarbone (clavicle) to your shoulder blade. In a mild separated shoulder, the ligaments might just be stretched. In severe injuries, ligaments might be torn. In most people, a separated shoulder doesn't usually require surgery. Instead, conservative treatment — such as rest, ice and pain relievers — is often enough to relieve the pain. Most people regain full shoulder function within a few weeks after having a separated shoulder.


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Sepsis is a life-threatening illness caused by your body’s response to an infection. Your immune system protects you from many illnesses and infections, but it’s also possible for it to go into overdrive in response to an infection. Sepsis develops when the chemicals the immune system releases into the bloodstream to fight an infection cause inflammation throughout the entire body instead. Severe cases of sepsis can lead to septic shock, which is a medical emergency.


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Septic arthritis is also known as infectious arthritis, and is usually caused by bacteria. It can also be caused by a virus or fungus. The condition is an inflammation of a joint that's caused by infection. Typically, septic arthritis affects one large joint in the body, such as the knee or hip. Less frequently, septic arthritis can affect multiple joints.



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Serotonin syndrome occurs when you take medications that cause high levels of the chemical serotonin to accumulate in your body.Serotonin syndrome can occur when you increase the dose of such a drug or add a new drug to your regimen. Certain illegal drugs and dietary supplements also are associated with serotonin syndrome.Serotonin is a chemical your body produces that's needed for your nerve cells and brain to function. But too much serotonin causes symptoms that can range from mild (shivering and diarrhea) to severe (muscle rigidity, fever and seizures). Severe serotonin syndrome can be fatal if not treated. Milder forms of serotonin syndrome may go away within a day of stopping the medications that cause symptoms and, sometimes, taking drugs that block serotonin

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Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head and neck that builds up as sexual excitement increases. Or, more commonly, you may experience a sudden, severe headache just before or during orgasm.


Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some can be a sign of something serious, such as problems with the blood vessels that feed your brain.


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Shigellosis is an infectious disease caused by a group of bacteria called Shigella (shih-GEHL-uh). Most who are infected with Shigella develop diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps starting a day or two after they are exposed to the bacteria. Shigellosis usually resolves in 5 to 7 days. Some people who are infected may have no symptoms at all, but may still pass the Shigella bacteria to others. The spread of Shigella can be stopped by frequent and careful handwashing with soap and taking other hygiene measures.


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Shin splints (medial tibial stress syndrome) is an inflammation of the muscles, tendons, and bone tissue around your tibia. Pain typically occurs along the inner border of the tibia, where muscles attach to the bone.


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Your bowels are made up of two parts -- the large intestine, also called the colon, and the small intestine. Short bowel syndrome usually affects people who’ve had a lot of their small intestine removed. Without this part, your body can’t get enough nutrients and water from the food you eat. This causes bowel troubles, like diarrhea, which can be dangerous if you go without treatment.If you learn you have short bowel syndrome, know that doctors can do a lot of things to ease your symptoms and make sure you get the right nutrition. People who have the disease can lead active lives.Over time, your body may adjust to having a shorter small intestine, and you may be able to take fewer medicines. The key is to stick to your treatment plan and get the support you need.


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The sinus node is a specialized group of cells in the upper chamber of the heart, the right atrium, that creates electrical signals that regulate the pace and rhythm of the heartbeat. Normally, the sinus node produces a regular, steady pattern of signals. With SSS, the pattern is irregular. The normal heart beat should increase with activity and decrease with rest and sleep.  With SSS, this function is disrupted, with a heart beat that is too slow for the patient's level of activity.


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Sickle cell anemia is an inherited form of anemia — a condition in which there aren't enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body. Normally, your red blood cells are flexible and round, moving easily through your blood vessels. In sickle cell anemia, the red blood cells become rigid and sticky and are shaped like sickles or crescent moons. These irregularly shaped cells can get stuck in small blood vessels, which can slow or block blood flow and oxygen to parts of the body. There's no cure for most people with sickle cell anemia. But treatments can relieve pain and help prevent problems associated with the disease.

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Your sinuses are air-filled spaces inside your forehead, cheekbones, and behind the bridge of your nose. When they get inflamed -- usually because of an allergic reaction or an infection -- they swell, make more mucus, and the channels that drain them can get blocked. The build-up of pressure in your sinuses causes pain that feels like a headache.


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Sjögren syndrome is a systemic chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by lymphocytic infiltrates in exocrine organs. Most individuals with Sjögren syndrome present with sicca symptoms, such as xerophthalmia (dry eyes), xerostomia (dry mouth), and parotid gland enlargement, which is seen in the image below. [1] (See Presentation.)

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Central sleep apnea is a disorder in which your breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep.Central sleep apnea occurs because your brain doesn't send proper signals to the muscles that control your breathing. This condition is different from obstructive sleep apnea, in which you can't breathe normally because of upper airway obstruction. Central sleep apnea is less common than obstructive sleep apnea. Central sleep apnea may occur as a result of other conditions, such as heart failure and stroke. Sleeping at a high altitude also may cause central sleep apnea. Treatments for central sleep apnea may involve treating existing conditions, using a device to assist breathing or using supplemental oxygen.


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Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder. It causes breathing to repeatedly stop and start during sleep.There are several types of sleep apnea, but the most common is obstructive sleep apnea. This type of apnea occurs when your throat muscles intermittently relax and block your airway during sleep. A noticeable sign of obstructive sleep apnea is snoring. Treatments for obstructive sleep apnea are available. One treatment involves using a device that keep your airway open while you sleep. Another option is a mouthpiece to thrust your jaw forward during sleep. In more severe cases, surgery may be an option too


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Sleep terrors are episodes of screaming, intense fear and flailing while still asleep. Also known as night terrors, sleep terrors often are paired with sleepwalking. Like sleepwalking, sleep terrors are considered a parasomnia — an undesired occurrence during sleep. A sleep terror episode usually lasts from seconds to a few minutes, but episodes may last longer. Sleep terrors affect almost 40 percent of children and a much smaller percentage of adults. However frightening, sleep terrors aren't usually a cause for concern. Most children outgrow sleep terrors by their teenage yearsSleep terrors may require treatment if they cause problems getting enough sleep or they pose a safety risk.

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Sleepwalking, formally known as somnambulism, is a behavior disorder that originates during deep sleep and results in walking or performing other complex behaviors while asleep. It is much more common in children than adults and is more likely to occur if a person is sleep deprived. Because a sleepwalker typically remains in deep sleep throughout the episode, he or she may be difficult to awaken and will probably not remember the sleepwalking incident.

Sleepwalking usually involves more than just walking during sleep; it is a series of complex behaviors that are carried out while sleeping, the most obvious of which is walking. Symptoms of sleepwalking disorder range from simply sitting up in bed and looking around, to walking around the room or house, to leaving the house and even driving long distances. It is a common misconception that a sleepwalker should not be awakened. In fact, it can be quite dangerous not to wake a sleepwalker.

The prevalence of sleepwalking in the general population is estimated to be between 1% and 15%. The onset or persistence of sleepwalking in adulthood is common, and is usually not associated with any significant underlying psychiatric or psychological problems. Common triggers for sleepwalking include sleep deprivation, sedative agents (including alcohol), febrile illnesses, and certain medications.

The prevalence of sleepwalking is much higher for children, especially those between the ages of three and seven, and occurs more often in children with sleep apnea. There is also a higher instance of sleepwalking among children who experience bedwetting. Sleep terrors are a related disorder and both tend to run in families.


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The small bowel makes up most of the digestive tract. Cancers of the small bowel are rare. Cancers that have spread to the small bowel from another part of the body, are called secondary cancers. Look at the information about where the cancer started (the primary cancer) because the treatment is the same. 


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Small vessel disease is a condition in which the walls of the small arteries in the heart are damaged. The condition causes signs and symptoms of heart disease, such as chest pain (angina).Small vessel disease is sometimes called coronary microvascular disease or small vessel heart disease. It's often diagnosed after a doctor finds little or no narrowing in the main arteries of your heart, despite your having symptoms that suggest heart disease.Small vessel disease is more common in women and in people who have diabetes or high blood pressure. The condition is treatable but can be difficult to detect.

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Before smallpox was eradicated, it was a serious infectious disease caused by the variola virus. It was contagious—meaning, it spread from one person to another. People who had smallpox had a fever and a distinctive, progressive skin rash.Most people with smallpox recovered, but about 3 out of every 10 people with the disease died. Many smallpox survivors have permanent scars over large areas of their body, especially their faces. Some are left blind. Thanks to the success of vaccination, smallpox was eradicated, and no cases of naturally occurring smallpox have happened since 1977. The last natural outbreak of smallpox in the United States occurred in 1949.


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It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. For example, going on a date or giving a presentation may cause that feeling of butterflies in your stomach. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause significant anxiety, fear, self-consciousness and embarrassment because you fear being scrutinized or judged by others In social anxiety disorder, fear and anxiety lead to avoidance that can disrupt your life. Severe stress can affect your daily routine, work, school or other activities.Social anxiety disorder is a chronic mental health condition, but learning coping skills in psychotherapy and taking medications can help you gain confidence and improve your ability to interact with others




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The palate is commonly called the roof of the mouth. It is divided into two parts: the bony hard palate in the front, and the fleshy soft palate (called the velum) in the back of the mouth. The hard palate is part of the oral cavity and the soft palate is part of the oropharynx.The hard palate creates a barrier between the mouth and the nasal cavity. A natural opening in the palate for nerves and blood vessels (near the third molar) can create a passageway for a tumor to spread into the nasal cavity.The soft palate closes the nasal passage during swallowing so food does not enter the nose. It also helps create speech sounds. If the palate does not function correctly during speech, air escapes through the nose, and the speech has a nasal sound. During a sneeze, the soft palate closes the nasal passage to protect it. Substances in the sneeze are thrown out into mouth.


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Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of cancers that grow in parts of your body like your muscles, deep layers of skin, or in fat. They also can form on blood vessels, nerves, or connective tissues, which support organs and other kinds of tissues.Soft tissue sarcomas account for less than 1% of all cases of cancer. But there are dozens of different types, and they can happen in children and adults.About 12,000 people are diagnosed with one of these cancers every year.

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Solitary fibrous tumors are rare growths of soft tissue cells that can form nearly anywhere in the body.Solitary fibrous tumors most often occur in the lining around the outside of the lungs (pleural solitary fibrous tumors). Solitary fibrous tumors have also been found in the head and neck, breast, kidney, prostate, spinal cord, and other sites.Most solitary fibrous tumors are noncancerous (benign), but in rare cases, solitary fibrous tumors can be cancerous (malignant). Solitary fibrous tumors tend to grow slowly and may not cause signs and symptoms until they become very large.

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Allergy to soy, a product of soybeans, is a common food allergy. Often, soy allergy starts in infancy with reaction to soy-based infant formula. Although most children outgrow soy allergy, some carry the allergy into adulthood.Mild signs and symptoms of soy allergy include hives or itching in and around the mouth. In rare cases, soy allergy can cause a life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).If you or your child has a reaction to soy, let your doctor know. Tests can help confirm a soy allergy.Having a soy allergy means avoiding products that contain soy, which can be difficult. Many foods, such as meat products, bakery goods, chocolate and breakfast cereals, may contain soy.

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Concern or fear about certain situations, activities, animals or objects is not uncommon. Many people feel anxious when faced with a snake or spider, heights, or travelling by plane. Fear is a rational response to situations that can pose a threat to our safety.However, some people react to objects, activities or situations (the phobic stimulus) by imagining or irrationally exaggerating the danger. Their feelings of panic, fear or terror are completely out of proportion to the actual threat. Sometimes the mere thought of the phobic stimulus, or the sight of it on TV, is enough to cause a reaction. These types of excessive reactions may be indicative of a specific phobia.People with specific phobias are often well aware that their fears are exaggerated or irrational, but feel that their anxious reaction is automatic or uncontrollable. Specific phobias are often associated with panic attacks, during which the person experiences overwhelming physical sensations that may include a pounding heart, choking, nausea, faintness, dizziness, chest pain, hot or cold flushes and perspiration.

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A spermatocele is an often pain-free benign cyst that occurs close to a testicle. It may also be known as a spermatic or epididymal cyst.The cyst forms in the epididymis. The epididymis is a coiled tube behind each testicle. The cyst is filled with fluid and may contain dead sperm. Read on to learn more about identifying and treating this condition

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Spider bites are quite rare. Spiders are not bloodsucking creatures and do not feed on humans.In fact, many species' fangs cannot pierce human skin.The only reason a spider would bite a human is defense. Spiders will bite when they are surprised or feel trapped.Quickly putting a hand or foot into a place where a spider lives, like a shoe or box, may surprise the spider and cause it to attack.A spider may also attack if it is trapped, such as in a jacket that has been hanging in the closet for some time.

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Spina bifida means open spine. The spine (backbone) protects the spinal cord, a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. The spinal cord carries signals back and forth between your body and your brain. Spina bifida happens when the bones in the spine don’t form correctly, or when the spinal cord doesn’t form correctly, leaving a gap or opening. Spina bifida can happen anywhere along the spine.Spina bifida is the most common kind of neural tube defect (also called NTD). NTDs are birth defects of the brain and spinal cord. Birth defects are health conditions that are present at birth. Birth defects change the shape or function of one or more parts of the body. They can cause problems in overall health, in how the body develops or in how the body works.A baby’s neural tube normally develops into the brain and spinal cord. It starts out as a tiny, flat ribbon that turns into a tube by the end of the first month of pregnancy. NTDs happen if the tube doesn’t close completely. About 1,500 to 2,000 babies are born with spina bifida each year in the United States.

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A spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord. It’s an extremely serious type of physical trauma that’s likely to have a lasting and significant impact on most aspects of daily life.The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves and other tissue that the vertebrae of the spine contains and protects. The vertebrae are the bones stacked on top of each other that make up the spine. The spine contains many nerves, and extends from the brain’s base down the back, ending close to the buttocks.The spinal cord is responsible for sending messages from the brain to all parts of the body. It also sends messages from the body to the brain. We’re able to perceive pain and move our limbs because of messages sent through the spinal cord.If the spinal cord sustains an injury, some or all of these impulses may not be able to “get through.” The result is a complete or total loss of sensation and mobility below the injury. A spinal cord injury closer to the neck will typically cause paralysis throughout a larger part of the body than one in the lower back area.

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A spinal tumor is a growth that develops within your spinal canal or within the bones of your spine. A spinal cord tumor, also called an intradural tumor, is a spinal tumor that that begins within the spinal cord or the covering of the spinal cord (dura). A tumor that affects the bones of the spine (vertebrae) is called a vertebral tumor.Spinal cord tumors may be classified as one of three different types depending on where they occur relative to the protective membranes of the spinal cord.

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A spinal headache, also known as a postdural puncture headache, is a complication of needle insertion into the subarachnoid space through the dural sac. The dural sac encases the spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid.This is a pressurized system that extends from the intracranial cavity down to the sacrum. Fluctuation in pressure can result in headache. This commonly occurs after diagnostic lumbar puncture. It is a less common complication of spinal anesthesia and spinal interventional pain injections.

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In the medical field, stenosis means the abnormal narrowing of a body channel. When combined with the word spinal, it defines a narrowing of the bone channel occupied by the spinal nerves or the spinal cord.Some people are born with a congenital form, but most develop spinal stenosis as part of the degenerative cascade. A few do not feel any effects of the narrowing, but as part of the aging process, most people will eventually notice radiating pain, weakness, and/or numbness secondary to the compression of the nerves or spinal cord.While the narrowing may occur at different parts of the spine, the symptoms of nerve compression are often similar. That is why specialists often will perform testing to determine the cause and location of the narrowing.

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A sprain is a stretched or torn ligament. Ligaments are tissues that connect bones at a joint. Falling, twisting, or getting hit can all cause a sprain. Ankle and wrist sprains are common. Symptoms include pain, swelling, bruising, and being unable to move your joint. You might feel a pop or tear when the injury happens.A strain is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon. Tendons are tissues that connect muscle to bone. Twisting or pulling these tissues can cause a strain. Strains can happen suddenly or develop over time. Back and hamstring muscle strains are common. Many people get strains playing sports. Symptoms include pain, muscle spasms, swelling, and trouble moving the muscle.At first, treatment of both sprains and strains usually involves resting the injured area, icing it, wearing a bandage or device that compresses the area, and medicines. Later treatment might include exercise and physical therapy.

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Staphylococcus bacteria (also termed staph) are responsible for a number of common infections. Staphylococcus is a genus of bacteria that is characterized by a round shape (coccus or spheroid shaped), Gram-stain positive, and found as either single cells, in pairs, or more frequently, in clusters that resemble a bunch of grapes. The genus name Staphylococcus is derived from Greek terms (staphyle and kokkos) that mean "a bunch of grapes," which is how the bacteria often appear microscopically after Gram-staining. In 1884, Rosenbach first described and named the bacteria. Two major divisions of the genus Staphylococcus are separated by the ability to produce coagulase, an enzyme that can clot blood. Most, but not all, human bacterial infections are caused by coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains. Staphylococcus epidermidis strains and other Staphylococcus species that are coagulase-negative produce slime that interferes with immune defenses. S. epidermidis are often associated with implanted devices (for example, catheters or prosthetic devices).

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Stickler syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes that are responsible for forming collagen, proteins which add strength and elasticity to connective tissue. Stickler syndrome affects connective tissue throughout the body, but most notably in the eyes (it is the most common cause of retinal detachment in children), ears, face, and joints.Stickler syndrome affects 1 out of every 7,500 people, but experts believe that it is widely under-diagnosed. While there is no medical cure for Stickler syndrome, when it is identified early, there is a lot that people can do to treat the problems it causes.

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Stomach cancer usually begins in the mucus-producing cells that line the stomach. This type of cancer is called adenocarcinoma.For the past several decades, rates of cancer in the main part of the stomach (stomach body) have been falling worldwide. During the same period, cancer in the area where the top part of the stomach (cardia) meets the lower end of the swallowing tube (esophagus) has become much more common. This area of the stomach is called the gastroesophageal junction.

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Stomach polyps — also called gastric polyps — are masses of cells that form on the lining inside your stomach. These polyps are rare and usually don't cause any signs or symptoms. Stomach polyps are most often discovered when your doctor is examining you for some other reason.Most stomach polyps don't become cancerous. But certain types can increase your risk of stomach cancer in the future. Depending on the type of stomach polyp you have, treatment might involve removing the polyp or monitoring it for changes.

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Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of a bone that's weakened by a condition such as osteoporosis.Stress fractures are most common in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and foot. Track and field athletes and military recruits who carry heavy packs over long distances are particularly susceptible, but anyone can have a stress fracture. If you start a new exercise program, for example, you might develop stress fractures if you do too much too soon.

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Stress incontinence is the inability to control your urge to urinate in certain circumstances. It’s a serious and embarrassing disorder and can lead to social isolation. Any pressure placed on the abdomen and bladder can lead to the loss of urine.It’s important to remember that the term “stress” is used in a strictly physical sense when describing stress incontinence. It refers to excessive pressure on the bladder and not emotional stress.An overactive bladder is a separate condition. In some cases, both overactive bladder and stress incontinence can occur, which is called mixed incontinence. Your doctor can do tests to determine which is causing your incontinence

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Stuttering affects the fluency of speech. It begins during childhood and, in some cases, lasts throughout life. The disorder is characterized by disruptions in the production of speech sounds, also called "disfluencies." Most people produce brief disfluencies from time to time. For instance, some words are repeated and others are preceded by "um" or "uh." Disfluencies are not necessarily a problem; however, they can impede communication when a person produces too many of them.In most cases, stuttering has an impact on at least some daily activities. The specific activities that a person finds challenging to perform vary across individuals. For some people, communication difficulties only happen during specific activities, for example, talking on the telephone or talking before large groups. For most others, however, communication difficulties occur across a number of activities at home, school, or work. Some people may limit their participation in certain activities. Such "participation restrictions" often occur because the person is concerned about how others might react to disfluent speech. Other people may try to hide their disfluent speech from others by rearranging the words in their sentence (circumlocution), pretending to forget what they wanted to say, or declining to speak. Other people may find that they are excluded from participating in certain activities because of stuttering. Clearly, the impact of stuttering on daily life can be affected by how the person and others react to the disorder.

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The subarachnoid space is the area between the brain and the skull. It is normally filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which acts as a floating cushion to protect the brain (see Anatomy of the Brain When blood is released into the subarachnoid space, it irritates the lining of the brain, increases pressure on the brain, and damages brain cells. At the same time, the area of brain that previously received oxygen-rich blood from the affected artery is now deprived of blood, resulting in a stroke. SAH is frequently a sign of a ruptured aneurysm


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Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs when the heart stops beating, abruptly and without warning. If this happens, blood stops flowing to the brain and other vital organs. In addition, if the heartbeat is not restored with an electrical shock immediately, death follows within minutes. SCA accounts for more than 350,000 deaths in the U.S. each year.SCA accounts for more than 350,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is one of the leading causes of death in the United States each year. In fact, SCA claims one life every 90 seconds, taking more lives each year than breast cancer, lung cancer or AIDS. Unfortunately, 95 percent of people who experience SCA die as a result, mainly because treatment within minutes is not accessible.

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Sun allergy is a term often used to describe a number of conditions in which an itchy red rash occurs on skin that's been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is polymorphic light eruption, also known as sun poisoning.Some people have a hereditary type of sun allergy, while others develop signs and symptoms only when triggered by another factor — such as certain types of medications or skin exposure to plants such as limes or wild parsnip.Mild cases of sun allergy may resolve without treatment. More severe cases may require steroid creams or pills. People who have a severe sun allergy may need to take preventative measures and wear sun-protective clothing.

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An arrhythmia is an abnormality in the timing or pattern of the heartbeat. Arrhythmias may cause the heart to beat too rapidly, too slowly, or irregularly. They are common and may cause a wide variety of symptoms, such as a racing, skipping or fluttering sensation (called palpitations) in your chest.Cardiac arrhythmias also may cause light-headedness, fainting, chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue or no symptoms at all. Many types of arrhythmia are merely nuisances, other types may be serious problems because they cause the patient to develop heart failure, pass out or even die suddenly when the heart beats too slowly or too rapidly to pump blood to the body.Supraventricular tachycardia is a series of rapid heartbeats that begin in or involve the upper chambers (atria) of the heart. SVT can cause the heart to beat very rapidly or erratically. As a result, the heart may beat inefficiently, and the body may receive an inadequate blood supply. There are three major types of SVT including:

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Tachycardia is a common type of heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia) in which the heart beats faster than normal while at rest.It's normal for your heart rate to rise during exercise or as a physiological response to stress, trauma or illness (sinus tachycardia). But in tachycardia (tak-ih-KAHR-dee-uh), the heart beats faster than normal in the upper or lower chambers of the heart or both while at rest.Your heart rate is controlled by electrical signals sent across heart tissues. Tachycardia occurs when an abnormality in the heart produces rapid electrical signals that quicken the heart rate, which is normally about 60 to 100 beats a minute at rest.In some cases, tachycardia may cause no symptoms or complications. But if left untreated, tachycardia can disrupt normal heart function and lead to serious complications, including:


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Sweet’s syndrome (also known as acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is an uncommon skin disorder characterised by a fever and the appearance of tender red lumps on the skin. It is a reactive condition with a number of potential triggers. It is not contagious and cannot be transferred from one person to another.

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Affecting the outer ear, swimmer’s ear (also called acute otitis externa) is a painful condition resulting from inflammation, irritation, or infection. These symptoms often occur after water gets trapped in your ear, with subsequent spread of bacteria or fungal organisms. Because this condition commonly affects swimmers, it is known as swimmer’s ear. Swimmer’s ear often affects children and teenagers, but can also affect those with eczema (a condition that causes the skin to itch), or excess earwax. Your doctor will prescribe treatment to reduce your pain and to treat the infection.

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Swimmer's itch, also called cercarial dermatitis, appears as a skin rash caused by an allergic reaction to certain microscopic parasites that infect some birds and mammals. These parasites are released from infected snails into fresh and salt water (such as lakes, ponds, and oceans). While the parasite's preferred host is the specific bird or mammal, if the parasite comes into contact with a swimmer, it burrows into the skin causing an allergic reaction and rash. Swimmer's itch is found throughout the world and is more frequent during summer months.

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Swimmer's itch is an itchy rash that can occur after you go swimming or wading outdoors. Also known as cercarial dermatitis, swimmer's itch is most common in freshwater lakes and ponds, but it occasionally occurs in salt water.Swimmer's itch is a rash usually caused by an allergic reaction to parasites that burrow into your skin while you're swimming or wading in warm water.The parasites that cause swimmer's itch normally live in waterfowl and some animals. These parasites can be released into the water. Humans aren't suitable hosts, so the parasites soon die while still in your skin.Swimmer's itch is uncomfortable, but it usually clears up on its own in a few days. In the meantime, you can control itching with over-the-counter or prescription medications.


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Swollen lymph nodes usually occur as a result of exposure to bacteria or viruses. When swollen lymph nodes are caused by an infection, this is known as lymphadenitis (lim-fad-uh-NIE-tis). Rarely, swollen lymph nodes are caused by cancer.Your lymph nodes, also called lymph glands, play a vital role in your body's ability to fight off infections. They function as filters, trapping viruses, bacteria and other causes of illnesses before they can infect other parts of your body. Common areas where you might notice swollen lymph nodes include your neck, under your chin, in your armpits and in your groin.In some cases, the passage of time and warm compresses may be all you need to treat swollen lymph nodes. Treatment of lymphadenitis depends on the cause.

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Synovial sarcoma is a type of soft-tissue sarcoma. It is a rare cancer. Only about 1 to 3 individuals in a million people are diagnosed with this disease each year. It can occur at any age, but it is more common among teenagers and young adults. Synovial sarcoma seems to have a slight preference for males, with 12 male patients for every 10 female patients. Despite its name, synovial sarcoma is not related to the synovial tissues that are a part of the joints. The disease starts most commonly in the legs or arms, but it can appear in any part of the body. On a pathology report, synovial sarcoma may be classified in different subtypes depending on what it looks like under the microscope or what specific gene mutation is involved. Synovial sarcoma is a high grade tumor. It spreads to distant sites in up to 50% of cases.


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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a type of bacteria known as Treponema pallidum. In 2016, more than 88,000 cases of syphilis were reported in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The rate of women with syphilis has been declining in the United States, but the rate among men, particularly men who have sex with men, has been rising. The first sign of syphilis is a small, painless sore. It can appear on the sexual organs, rectum, or inside the mouth. This sore is called a chancre. People often fail to notice it right away.Syphilis can be challenging to diagnose. Someone can have it without showing any symptoms for years. However, the earlier syphilis is discovered, the better. Syphilis that remains untreated for a long time can cause major damage to important organs, like the heart and brain.Syphilis is only spread through direct contact with syphilitic chancres. It can’t be transmitted by sharing a toilet with another person, wearing another person’s clothing, or using another person’s eating utensils

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Syringomyelia is a rare disorder in which a cyst forms within your spinal cord. As this fluid-filled cyst, or syrinx, expands and lengthens over time, it compresses and damages part of your spinal cord from its center outward.Damage to the spinal cord caused by a syrinx can lead to symptoms such as progressive pain, stiffness, and weakness in the:back shoulders arms legs People with the disorder might lose the ability to feel cold and pain normally. Some people with this disorder won’t have any symptoms and won’t need treatment. For others, syringomyelia will cause symptoms and complications that worsen as the syrinx expands.Treatment aims to relieve the pressure on your spinal cord. The treatment your doctor suggests for you will depend on the cause of your syringomyelia. Follow-up care after surgery is important because syringomyelia can reoccur.

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Systemic mastocytosis (mas-to-sy-TOE-sis) is a disorder that results in an excessive number of mast cells in your body. Mast cells normally help protect you from disease and aid in wound healing by releasing substances such as histamine and leukotrienes. But if you have systemic mastocytosis, excess mast cells generally build up in your skin, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract and bones. When triggered, these mast cells release substances that can overwhelm your body and result in signs and symptoms such as facial flushing, itching, a rapid heartbeat, abdominal cramps, lightheadedness or even loss of consciousness. Common triggers include alcohol, temperature changes, spicy foods and certain medications.Several types of systemic mastocytosis exist. The most common form — indolent systemic mastocytosis — progresses slowly.The second most common form is systemic mastocytosis associated with a second blood disorder. Another type, aggressive systemic mastocytosis, develops rapidly and is often associated with organ damage. Mast cell leukemia and mast cell sarcoma are extremely rare forms of systemic mastocytosis.


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Those who are looking to feel the burn, baby! Looking to strengthen and tone your legs and glutes? Step right up.We combine the awesome toning and strengthening power of Step aerobics, with the fun fitness-party that only Zumba® brings to the dance-floor.Zumba® Step increase cardio and calorie burning, while adding moves that define and sculpt your core and legs.


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Step aerobics is a classic cardio workout. It's lasted for decades for a simple reason: It delivers results.The "step" is a 4-inch to 12-inch raised platform. You step up, around, and down from the platform in different patterns to boost your heart rate and breathing, and strengthen your muscles.Step aerobics moves range from simple to advanced. The most basic is a step-up, step-down. Once you get more experienced, you do moves that take you over the top and around the step forwards, sideways, and backwards.Most people take step aerobics classes at a gym, with an instructor showing you each move. The instructor and the upbeat music motivate you to keep going.Your class will start with a warm-up, followed by choreographed routines on the step, and a cooldown at the end. In some classes, you'll use hand weights for strength-training moves off the step.


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This beginner level workout features basic choreography. Gin Miller, the inventor of step aerobics, leads this video. In an article appearing on the IDEA Health and Fitness Association website, Miller says "Everbody Steps" is a top seller. It's a solid, complete introduction to step workouts. You burn fat while learning the step basics from Miller, an IDEA Instructor of the Year with 12 years of step experience. Miller makes the moves understandable and explains common step-aerobic terminology in laymen's terms. The video has six distinct segments that allow you to advance at your own pace and stop when you want. The workout begins with the simplest steps and the easiest patterns and progresses into classic step-aerobic combinations, such as straddles, turns and transitions.


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Look around. There are countless articles in magazines and online about gaining size and strength. Everyone wants to get strong, and everyone wants to add muscle, but most don’t achieve the goal. Why? A number of reasons, including ridiculous exercise selection, poor programming, and—from what I’ve seen as a coach for almost 25 years—bad form.If you’re willing to do the hard work and make the commitment to using perfect form, I’ve got the ultimate plan for you: an eight-week guide to getting stronger than you ever thought you could.It’s a simple plan based on compound movements, high-repetition heavy lifting, and maximum-effort training. Throw in the right assistance work and you’ve got a plan for success.


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This test is the same as a treadmill exercise test. This test checks the function of the heart during and after physical activity. In addition, an IV will be started and, at the peak of exercise, the patient will be injected with a mild isotope. The patient will then be escorted to the scanning room adjacent to the stress lab for approximately 30 minutes. From there, the patient will be free to leave and will return 3 hours later for a repeat scan.


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A somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) is an evoked potential caused by a physical stimulus (usually a small electric pulse). Electrodes positioned over particular areas of the body record responses of the SSEP, these are then observed as a reading on an electroencephalogram (EEG).  A SSEP can most commonly involve stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist, or the posterior tibial nerve at the ankle. This investigation therefore tests the pathway of the sensory nerves to the sensory areas of the brain, even though the stimuli are non-physiological.


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Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs) are electric signals recorded from the scalp or spine following stimulation to the peripheral nerves. They are time-locked responses, representing the function of the ascending sensory pathways. Early in the 1960s Larson et al introduced the use of somatosensory evoked potentials to monitor neural structure during neurosurgical procedures. It was utilized as a supplement to the wake-up test during correctional spinal surgeries for spinal deformities such as scoliosis to provide warning of compromised spinal cord function to the spine surgeons, as reported by McCallum et al and Nash et al in the 1970s. Since then SSEP has become one of the earliest and primary tools for intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.


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Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs) are electrical responses recorded from the nervous system following electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve.  For example, stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist produces electrical activity that travels along the sensory pathway on its way to the brain. This activity can be recorded with electrodes positioned along that pathway.


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A fistulogram uses a form of real-time x-ray called fluoroscopy and a barium-based contrast material to produce images of an abnormal passage within the body called a fistula. Similarly, a sinogram assesses an abnormal passage called a sinus that originates or ends in one opening, often on the skin. Both examinations are used to assess and diagnose the size and shape of fistulas and sinuses and any related abscess and/or infection. You will be instructed on how to prepare. You may be asked to refrain from eating or drinking anything for several hours before the examination, but you should be allowed to take medications with small amounts of clear fluid up to two hours prior. Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking and allergies, especially to contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown


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Sagging breasts is a very common problem and are a natural consequence of aging. The medical term for this condition is ‘Ptosis’ of the breast and the causes are still not clearly defined or understood.

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Collagen and elastin help keep your skin firm. You may develop sagging skin with age as your skin loses its natural elasticity. According to Skincarephysicians.com, intrinsic aging is a natural part of the aging process that reduces collagen and elastin production in your skin. Extrinsic factors such as repetitive facial expressions, sleeping positions, smoking and sun exposure can prematurely age your skin and lead to sagging. Extreme or rapid weight loss may also contribute to saggy skin.

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Scabies, previously known as the seven-year itch, is a contagious skin infestation by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The most common symptoms are severe itchiness and a pimple-like rash. Occasionally, tiny burrows may be seen in the skin. In a first ever infection a person will usually develop symptoms in between two and six weeks. During a second infection symptoms may begin in as little as 24 hours. These symptoms can be present across most of the body or just certain areas such as the wrists, between fingers, or along the waistline. The head may be affected, but this is typically only in young children. The itch is often worse at night. Scratching may cause skin breakdown and an additional bacterial infection of the skin.

Scabies is caused by infection with the female mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. The mites burrow into the skin to live and deposit eggs. The symptoms of scabies are due to an allergic reaction to the mites. Often, only between 10 and 15 mites are involved in an infection. Scabies is most often spread during a relatively long period of direct skin contact with an infected person (at least 10 minutes) such as that which may occur during sex. Spread of disease may occur even if the person has not developed symptoms yet. Crowded living conditions, such as those found in child-care facilities, group homes, and prisons, increase the risk of spread. Areas with a lack of access to water also have higher rates of disease. Crusted scabies is a more severe form of the disease. It typically only occurs in those with a poor immune system and people may have millions of mites, making them much more contagious. In these cases, spread of infection may occur during brief contact or by contaminated objects. The mite is very small and usually not directly visible. Diagnosis is based on the signs and symptoms.
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Do you have an itch? Some scratch their heads while giving something some serious thought in a “hmm, let me think about that” sort of moment. But for many others, a serious scratching is desired because there is a genuine and persistent itch on the head, specifically an itchy scalp.


Often, we assume it must be dandruff, a common problem, but there are many conditions that can cause a dry, itchy scalp in addition to dandruff, such as ringworm or even a bacterial infection caused by an autoimmune condition.


With itching being the most common symptom, skin infections, swelling, redness, balding and damaged hair may also result from an itchy scalp. Common treatments are usually in some form of antimicrobial or keratolytic therapy, steroids, and special diets. However, there is no doubt that one of the most effective treatments for itchy scalp is a good old shampoo scrub to help remove loose and scaly skin. And to really stop the itch long term, you need to find out what’s causing it. Let’s look at some of the best natural treatments for an itchy scalp and the most common causes


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When the skin is in the process of recovering from an injury, whether the result of an accident, surgery, a burn, or acne, scarring will occur wherever multiple layers of the skin have been affected. Once a scar forms, it is permanent but may be made less visible or relocated surgically.
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Fibrous tissue that forms when normal tissue is destroyed by disease, injury, or surgery. For example, scar tissue forms when a wound heals after a cut, sore, burn, or other skin condition, or when an incision (cut) is made into the skin during surgery. It may also form inside the body when certain conditions, such as cirrhosis, cause normal tissue to become fibrous tissue.

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Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that others do not hear, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation. People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety, depressive, or substance-use disorders. Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and last a long time.

The causes of schizophrenia include environmental and genetic factors. Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, certain infections, parental age and poor nutrition during pregnancy. Genetic factors include a variety of common and rare genetic variants. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior, the person's reported experiences and reports of others familiar with the person. During diagnosis a person's culture must also be taken into account. As of 2013 there is no objective test. Schizophrenia does not imply a "split personality" or "dissociative identity disorder" – conditions with which it is often confused in public perception.
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Sciatica is a medical condition characterized by pain going down the leg from the lower back. This pain may go down the back, outside, or front of the leg. Onset is often sudden following activities like heavy lifting, though gradual onset may also occur. Typically, symptoms are only on one side of the body. Certain causes, however, may result in pain on both sides. Lower back pain is sometimes but not always present. Weakness or numbness may occur in various parts of the affected leg and foot.

About 90% of the time sciatica is due to a spinal disc herniation pressing on one of the lumbar or sacral nerve roots. Other problems that may result in sciatica include spondylolisthesis, spinal stenosis, piriformis syndrome, pelvic tumors, and compression by a baby's head during pregnancy. The straight-leg-raising test is often helpful in diagnosis. The test is positive if, when the leg is raised while a person is lying on their back, pain shoots below the knee. In most cases medical imaging is not needed. Exceptions to this are when bowel or bladder function is affected, there is significant loss of feeling or weakness, symptoms are long standing, or there is a concern of a tumor or infection. Conditions that may present similarly are diseases of the hip and early herpes zoster before the rash appears.
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Sensitive skin is a skin condition in which skin is prone to itching and irritation experienced as a subjective sensation when using cosmetics and toiletries. When questioned, over 50% of women in the UK and US, and 38% of men, report that they have sensitive skin.
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Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a localized area. Typically the rash occurs in a single, wide stripe either on the left or right of the body or face. Two to four days before the rash occurs there may be tingling or local pain in the area. Otherwise there are typically few symptoms. The rash usually heals within two to four weeks; however, some people develop ongoing nerve pain which can last for months or years, a condition called postherpetic neuralgia. In those with poor immune function the rash may occur widely. If the rash involves the eye, vision loss may occur.

Shingles is due to a reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) within a person's body. The disease chickenpox is caused by the initial infection with VZV. Once chickenpox has resolved, the virus may remain inactive in nerve cells. When it reactivates, it travels from the nerve body to the endings in the skin, producing blisters. Risk factors for reactivation include old age, poor immune function, and having had chickenpox before 18 months of age. How the virus remains in the body or subsequently re-activates is not well understood. Exposure to the virus in the blisters can cause chickenpox in someone who has not had it before, but will not trigger shingles. Diagnosis is typically based on a person's signs and symptoms. Varicella zoster virus is not the same as herpes simplex virus; however, they belong to the same family of viruses.
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Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is a feeling like one cannot breathe well enough. The American Thoracic Society defines it as "a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity", and recommends evaluating dyspnea by assessing the intensity of the distinct sensations, the degree of distress involved, and its burden or impact on activities of daily living. Distinct sensations include effort/work, chest tightness, and air hunger (the feeling of not enough oxygen).

Dyspnea is a normal symptom of heavy exertion but becomes pathological if it occurs in unexpected situations or light exertion. In 85% of cases it is due to asthma, pneumonia, cardiac ischemia, interstitial lung disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or psychogenic causes, such as panic disorder and anxiety. Treatment typically depends on the underlying cause.
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Shoulder problems including pain, are one of the more common reasons for physician visits for musculoskeletal symptoms. The shoulder is the most movable joint in the body. However, it is an unstable joint because of the range of motion allowed. This instability increases the likelihood of joint injury, often leading to a degenerative process in which tissues break down and no longer function well.

Shoulder pain may be localized or may be referred to areas around the shoulder or down the arm. Other regions within the body (such as gallbladder, liver, or heart disease, or disease of the cervical spine of the neck) also may generate pain that the brain may interpret as arising from the shoulder.
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It's inflammation or swelling of your sinuses. Normally they're filled with air. When they become blocked and filled with fluid, bacteria can grow there and cause infection. The result: a sinus infection. You may hear your doctor refer to it as sinusitis. 

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Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms. Common signs and symptoms include thick nasal mucus, a plugged nose, and pain in the face. Other signs and symptoms may include fever, headaches, poor sense of smell, sore throat, and cough. The cough is often worse at night. Serious complications are rare. It is defined as acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) if it lasts less than 4 weeks, and as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) if it lasts for more than 12 weeks.

Sinusitis can be caused by infection, allergies, air pollution, or structural problems in the nose. Most cases are caused by a viral infection. A bacterial infection may be present if symptoms last more than ten days or if a person worsens after starting to improve. Recurrent episodes are more likely in people with asthma, cystic fibrosis, and poor immune function. X-rays are not typically needed unless complications are suspected. In chronic cases confirmatory testing is recommended by either direct visualization or computed tomography.
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Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation.

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Skin rejuvenation helps rectify skin irregularities on the face and elsewhere on the body. La belle's Skin rejuvenation treatments have been developed considering the general needs and the various problems that could possibly affect the skin. We aim to help restore and promote the wellness of your skin and spirit. Our experts suggest the appropriate skin rejuvenation treatments after examining your skin type and identifying your requirement. Facial rejuvenation is a treatment aims to restore a youthful appearance to the human face cosmetically and can be carried out by surgical and/or non-surgical options

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A skin tag is a small growth on the skin that is usually benign (harmless). It may have a short narrow stalk which connects it to the skin. They are usually small but may grow up to a half-inch long.
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Skin  is our largest organ. If the skin of a typical 150-pound (68-kilogram) adult male were stretched out flat, it would cover about 2 square yards (1.7 square meters) and weigh about 9 pounds (4 kilograms). Our skin protects the network of muscles, bones, nerves, blood vessels, and everything else inside our bodies. Our eyelids have the thinnest skin, the soles of our feet the thickest.


Hair  is actually a modified type of skin. Hair grows everywhere on the human body except the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, and lips. Hair grows more quickly in summer than winter, and more slowly at night than during the day.


Nails  are a type of modified skin. Nails protect the sensitive tips of fingers and toes. Human nails aren't necessary for living, but they do provide support for the tips of the fingers and toes, protect them from injury, and aid in picking up small objects. Without them, we'd have a hard time scratching an itch or untying a knot. Nails can be an indicator of a person's general health, and illness often affects their growth.

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Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep. Each pause can last for a few seconds to a few minutes and they happen many times a night. In the most common form, this follows loud snoring. There may be a choking or snorting sound as breathing resumes. As it disrupts normal sleep, those affected may experience sleepiness or feel tired during the day. In children it may cause problems in school or hyperactivity.

There are three forms of sleep apnea: obstructive (OSA), central (CSA), and a combination of the two called mixed. OSA is the most common form. Risk factors for OSA include being overweight, a family history of the condition, allergies, a small airway, and enlarged tonsils. In OSA, breathing is interrupted by a blockage of airflow, while in CSA breathing stops due to a lack of effort to breathe. People with sleep apnea may not be aware they have it. In many cases it is first observed by a family member. Sleep apnea is often diagnosed with an overnight sleep study. For a diagnosis of sleep apnea, more than five episodes an hour must occur.

Treatment may include lifestyle changes, mouthpieces, breathing devices, and surgery. Lifestyle changes may include avoiding alcohol, losing weight, stopping smoking, and sleeping on one's side. Breathing devices include the use of a CPAP machine. Without treatment sleep apnea may increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, diabetes, heart failure, irregular heartbeat, obesity, and motor vehicle collisions.
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A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental, social and emotional functioning. Polysomnography and actigraphy are tests commonly ordered for some sleep disorders.

Disruptions in sleep can be caused by a variety of issues, from teeth grinding (bruxism) to night terrors. When a person suffers from difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep with no obvious cause, it is referred to as insomnia.

Sleep disorders are broadly classified into dyssomnias, parasomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders involving the timing of sleep, and other disorders including ones caused by medical or psychological conditions and sleeping sickness.

Some common sleep disorders include sleep apnea (stops in breathing during sleep), narcolepsy and hypersomnia (excessive sleepiness at inappropriate times), cataplexy (sudden and transient loss of muscle tone while awake), and sleeping sickness (disruption of sleep cycle due to infection). Other disorders include sleepwalking, night terrors and bed wetting. Management of sleep disturbances that are secondary to mental, medical, or substance abuse disorders should focus on the underlying conditions.
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After a night out at a smoky party, or a long run on a hot and humid day, it’s quite normal to find that your hair gets, well... a bit pongy. It’s nothing that a proper shampoo and rinse can’t solve.

But what if, despite washing your hair every day — and even minutes after stepping out of the shower — your hair still seems to be giving off a nasty niff?

You could be suffering from what experts have dubbed Smelly Hair Syndrome (SHS) — a condition which can leave the sufferer both acutely embarrassed and at a loss for either the cause or the cure.

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Hair care is an overall term for hygiene and cosmetology involving the hair which grows from the human scalp, and to a lesser extent facial, pubic and other body hair. Hair care routines differ according to an individual's culture and the physical characteristics of one's hair. Hair may be colored, trimmed, shaved, plucked, or otherwise removed with treatments such as waxing, sugaring, and threading. Hair care services are offered in salons, barbershops, and day spas, and products are available commercially for home use. Laser hair removal and electrolysis are also available, though these are provided (in the US) by licensed professionals in medical offices or speciality spas.
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The human skin is the outer covering of the body. In humans, it is the largest organ of the integumentary system. The skin has up to seven layers of ectodermal tissue and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Human skin is similar to that of most other mammals. Though nearly all human skin is covered with hair follicles, it can appear hairless. There are two general types of skin, hairy and glabrous skin (hairless). The adjective cutaneous literally means "of the skin" (from Latin cutis, skin).

Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays an important immunity role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss. Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, synthesis of vitamin D, and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. This is often discolored and depigmented.

In humans, skin pigmentation varies among populations, and skin type can range from dry to oily. Such skin variety provides a rich and diverse habitat for bacteria that number roughly 1000 species from 19 phyla, present on the human skin.
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A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa. A sneeze expels air forcibly from the mouth and nose in an explosive, spasmodic involuntary action resulting chiefly from irritation of the nasal mucous membrane. Sneezing is possibly linked to sudden exposure to bright light, sudden change (fall) in temperature, breeze of cold air, a particularly full stomach, or viral infection, and can lead to the spread of disease.

The function of sneezing is to expel mucus containing foreign particles or irritants and cleanse the nasal cavity. During a sneeze, the soft palate and palatine uvula depress while the back of the tongue elevates to partially close the passage to the mouth so that air ejected from the lungs may be expelled through the nose. Because the closing of the mouth is partial, a considerable amount of this air is usually also expelled from the mouth. The force and extent of the expulsion of the air through the nose varies.
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Snoring is the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping. In some cases, the sound may be soft, but in most cases, it can be loud and unpleasant. Snoring during sleep may be a sign, or first alarm, of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Research suggests that snoring is one of the factors of sleep deprivation.
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Social anxiety can be defined as nervousness in social situations. Some disorders associated with the social anxiety spectrum include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, autism, eating disorders, and substance use disorders. Individuals higher in social anxiety avert their gazes, show fewer facial expressions, and show difficulty with initiating and maintaining conversation. Trait social anxiety, the stable tendency to experience this nervousness, can be distinguished from state anxiety, the momentary response to a particular social stimulus. Nearly 90% of individuals report feeling a form of social anxiety (i.e., shyness) at some point in their lives. Half of the individuals with any social fears meet criteria for social anxiety disorder. The function of social anxiety is to increase arousal and attention to social interactions, inhibit unwanted social behavior, and motivate preparation for social situations such as performance situations.
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Breastfeeding difficulties refers to problems that arise from breastfeeding, the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a woman's breasts. Although babies have a sucking reflex that enables them to suck and swallow milk, and although human breast milk is usually the best source of nourishment for human infants, there are circumstances under which breastfeeding can be problematic, or even, in rare instances, contraindicated.
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Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat.

It is usually caused by pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat) or tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils). It can also result from trauma.

About 7.5% of people have a sore throat in any three-month period.
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A sore tongue is any pain or discomfort of all or a part of the tongue. Pain is a sensation triggered by the nervous system in response to tissue inflammation or damage. If you have a sore tongue, you may feel a dull, stabbing, shooting, burning, or pins-and-needles sensation.

The tongue is composed mainly of muscle. A sore or painful tongue can result from infection, inflammation, trauma, malignancy and other abnormal processes of the tissues of the tongue. One common condition that causes a sore tongue is glossitis, an inflammation of the tongue that also results in tongue swelling and discoloration that is caused by irritants, infection or other disorders.

Depending on the cause, a sore tongue can begin suddenly and resolve on its own, such as after biting your tongue. Tongue pain or soreness that develops over time and worsens may be a sign of a more serious condition, such as cancer.

In some cases, a sore tongue can be a sign of a serious or life-threatening disease or condition, such as an anaphylactic reaction. If you are experiencing difficulty breathing, swelling of the tongue, mouth or face, or a change in consciousness,

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A sprained ankle, also known as an twisted ankle, rolled ankle, floppy ankle, or just ankle injury, is a common injury where sprain occur on one or more ligaments of the ankle.

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Neck stiffness, stiff neck and nuchal rigidity are terms often used interchangeably to describe the medical condition when one experiences discomfort or pain when trying to turn, move, or flex the neck. Possible causes include muscle strain or sprain, cervical spine disorders, meningitis, and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Nuchal rigidity due to irritation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord is one of the main symptoms of meningitis.
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Abdominal pain (also called a stomach ache) is a pain or ache in the abdomen. It can be caused by different things, including food poisoning, indigestion, constipation, gastritis, an ulcer, hunger, appendicitis, stomach cancer or diverticulitis.
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Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that involves the stomach and small intestine. Signs and symptoms include some combination of diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Fever, lack of energy, and dehydration may also occur. This typically lasts less than two weeks. It is unrelated to influenza though it has been called the "stomach flu".

Gastroenteritis can be due to infections by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungus. The most common cause is viruses. In children rotavirus is the most common cause of severe disease. In adults, norovirus and Campylobacter are common. Transmission may occur due to eating improperly prepared foods, drinking contaminated water, or through close contact with an individual who is infected. Testing to confirm the diagnosis is typically not needed.
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Stomach ulcers, which are also known as gastric ulcers, are painful sores in the stomach lining. Stomach ulcers are a type of peptic ulcer disease. Peptic ulcers are any ulcers that affect both the stomach and small intestines.


Stomach ulcers occur when the thick layer of mucus that protects your stomach from digestive juices is reduced. This allows the digestive acids to eat away at the tissues that line the stomach, causing an ulcer.


Stomach ulcers may be easily cured, but they can become severe without proper treatment.

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Hair straightening is a hair styling technique used since the 1890s involving the flattening and straightening of hair in order to give it a smooth, streamlined, and sleek appearance. It became very popular during the 1950s among black males and females of all races. It is accomplished using a hair iron or hot comb, chemical relaxers, Japanese hair straightening, Brazilian hair straightening, or roller set/blowdryer styling. In addition, some shampoos, conditioners, and hair gels can help to make hair temporarily straight.

The process is often called "rebonding" in some countries from Southeast Asia (e.g. Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Philippines). The term "rebonding" was first used by REDS Hairdressing from Singapore in the late 1980s,[citation needed] which slowly spread to the rest of the region. If done often, flat irons and chemicals can be damaging to hair. Excessive straightening often results in split ends. However, heat protectant sprays can decrease the damage.
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Kids often come down with sore, scratchy throats. Colds and other viruses are usually to blame. Irritants such as smoke in the air can also make you feel raw.

Strep throat is different -- it’s caused by bacteria. You need to know whether you or your child has strep or another illness so you can get the right treatment.

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In a medical or biological context stress is a physical, mental, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension. Stresses can be external (from the environment, psychological, or social situations) or internal (illness, or from a medical procedure). Stress can initiate the "fight or flight" response, a complex reaction of neurologic and endocrinologic systems.

Catecholamine hormones, such as adrenaline or noradrenaline, facilitate immediate physical reactions associated with a preparation for violent muscular action. These include the following: Acceleration of heart and lung action, paling or flushing, or alternating between both, inhibition of stomach and upper-intestinal action to the point where digestion slows down or stops, the general effect on the sphincters of the body, constriction of blood vessels in many parts of the body, liberation of nutrients (particularly fat and glucose) for muscular action, dilation of blood vessels for muscles, inhibition of the lacrimal gland (responsible for tear production) and salivation, dilation of pupil (mydriasis), relaxation of bladder, inhibition of erection, auditory exclusion (loss of hearing), tunnel vision (loss of peripheral vision), disinhibition of spinal reflexes, and Shaking

Stress can cause or influence the course of many medical conditions including psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety. Medical problems can include poor healing, irritable bowel syndrome, high blood pressure, poorly controlled diabetes and many other conditions. Stress management is recognized as an effective treatment modality to include pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic components. 

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Stretch marks, also known as striae, are a form of scarring on the skin with an off-color hue. Over time they may diminish, but will not disappear completely. Stretch marks that form during pregnancy, usually during the last trimester, and usually on the belly, but also commonly occurring on the breasts, thighs, hips, lower back and buttocks, are known as striae gravidarum.

Stretch marks are caused by tearing of the dermis. This is often from the rapid stretching of the skin associated with rapid growth or rapid weight changes. Stretch marks may also be influenced by hormonal changes associated with puberty, pregnancy, bodybuilding, or hormone replacement therapy.

There is no evidence that creams used during pregnancy prevent stretch marks. Once they have formed there is no clearly useful treatment, though various methods have been tried.
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A stroke is a "brain attack". It can happen to anyone at any time. It occurs when blood flow to an area of brain is cut off. When this happens, brain cells are deprived of oxygen and begin to die. When brain cells die during a stroke, abilities controlled by that area of the brain such as memory and muscle control are lost.

How a person is affected by their stroke depends on where the stroke occurs in the brain and how much the brain is damaged. For example, someone who had a small stroke may only have minor problems such as temporary weakness of an arm or leg. People who have larger strokes may be permanently paralyzed on one side of their body or lose their ability to speak. Some people recover completely from strokes, but more than 2/3 of survivors will have some type of disability.

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Stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding. They result in part of the brain not functioning properly. Signs and symptoms of a stroke may include an inability to move or feel on one side of the body, problems understanding or speaking, feeling like the world is spinning, or loss of vision to one side. Signs and symptoms often appear soon after the stroke has occurred. If symptoms last less than one or two hours it is known as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke. A hemorrhagic stroke may also be associated with a severe headache. The symptoms of a stroke can be permanent. Long-term complications may include pneumonia or loss of bladder control.

The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure. Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel, though there are also less common causes. A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by either bleeding directly into the brain or into the space between the brain's membranes. Bleeding may occur due to a ruptured brain aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically with medical imaging such as a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan along with a physical exam. Other tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood tests are done to determine risk factors and rule out other possible causes. Low blood sugar may cause similar symptoms.
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The presence of increased secretions and mucus in the nasal passages, most commonly arising as a result of a common cold, allergic reaction, or inflammation or infection of the paranasal sinuses (sinus infection).

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Sun tanning or simply tanning is the process whereby skin color is darkened or tanned. It is most often a result of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or from artificial sources, such as a tanning lamp found in indoor tanning beds. People who deliberately tan their skin by exposure to the sun engage in a passive recreational activity of sun bathing. Some people use chemical products which can produce a tanning effect without exposure to ultraviolet radiation, known as sunless tanning.

Moderate exposure to the sun contributes to the production of melanin and vitamin D by the body, but excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays has negative health effects, including sunburn and increased risk of skin cancer, as well as depressed immune system function and accelerated aging of the skin. Some people tan or sunburn more easily than others. This may be the result of different skin types and natural skin color, and these may be a result of genetics.

Several cases of tanning addiction have been reported by medical researchers. Though the mechanism by which tanning addiction occurs is unknown, some evidence indicates that the release of endorphins during the tanning process causes the pleasurable effects that underlie the addiction.
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Inflammation and erythema of the skin, often with blistering, caused by overexposure to the ultraviolet rays of direct sunlight.

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Sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun. Common symptoms in humans and other animals include red or reddish skin that is hot to the touch, pain, general fatigue, and mild dizziness. An excess of UV radiation can be life-threatening in extreme cases. Exposure of the skin to lesser amounts of UV radiation will often produce a suntan.


Excessive UV radiation is the leading cause of primarily non-malignant skin tumors. Sunscreen is widely agreed to prevent sunburn and some types of skin cancer. Clothing, including hats, is considered the preferred skin protection method. Moderate sun tanning without burning can also prevent subsequent sunburn, as it increases the amount of melanin, a photoprotective pigment that is the skin's natural defense against overexposure. Importantly, both sunburn and the increase in melanin production are triggered by direct DNA damage. When the skin cells' DNA is overly damaged by UV radiation, type I cell-death is triggered and the skin is replaced.

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Sanskrit: सूर्यनमस्कार IPA: Sun Salutation, is a Yoga warm up routine based on a sequence of gracefully linked asanas. The nomenclature refers to the symbolism of Sun as the soul and the source of all life. It was developed in the 20th century.

A yogi may develop a personalized yoga warm up routine as surya-namaskar to precede his or her asana practice.
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Hyperhidrosis is a condition characterized by abnormally increased sweating,in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature. Although primarily a physical burden, hyperhidrosis can deteriorate quality of life from a psychological, emotional, and social perspective. It has been called by some 'the silent handicap'.

Both the words diaphoresis and hidrosis can mean either perspiration (in which sense they are synonymous with sweating) or excessive perspiration, in which case they refer to a specific, narrowly defined, clinical disorder.
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Swine influenza is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses. Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H911,H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3.

The Swine flu was initially seen in humans in Mexico in 2009, where the strand of the particular virus was a marriage of 3 types of strands. Six of the genes are very similar to the H1N2 influenza virus that was found in pigs around 2000.

Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human flu, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. If transmission does cause human flu, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection.
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Swine flu (swine influenza) is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses) that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Swine flu can last about one to two weeks in pigs that survive. Swine influenza virus was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in the U.S. and has been recognized by pork producers and veterinarians to cause infections in pigs worldwide. In a number of instances, people have developed the swine flu infection when they are closely associated with pigs (for example, farmers, pork processors), and likewise, pig populations have occasionally been infected with the human flu infection. In most instances, the cross-species infections (swine virus to man; human flu virus to pigs) have remained in local areas and have not caused national or worldwide infections in either pigs or humans. Unfortunately, this cross-species situation with influenza viruses has had the potential to change. Investigators decided the 2009 so-called "swine flu" strain, first seen in Mexico, should be termed novel H1N1 flu since it was mainly found infecting people and exhibits two main surface antigens, H1 (hemagglutinin type 1) and N1 (neuraminidase type1). The eight RNA strands from novel H1N1 flu have one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains

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This swelling is caused by a build-up of fluid, or inflammation inside the lip tissue. It can have many causes, including injury, illness, certain medicines or allergies. Swollen lips can be a sign of anaphylaxis – a severe allergic reaction – which requires immediate medical attention.

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Skin care is the range of practices that support skin integrity, enhance its appearance and relieve skin conditions. They can include nutrition, avoidance of excessive sun exposure and appropriate use of emollients. Practices that enhance appearance include the use of cosmetics, botulinum, exfoliation, fillers, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, peels, retinol therapy. Skin care is a routine daily procedure in many settings, such as skin that is either too dry or too moist, and prevention of dermatitis and prevention of skin injuries.
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Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping. They may have difficulty falling asleep, or staying asleep as long as desired. Insomnia is typically followed by daytime sleepiness, low energy, irritability, and a depressed mood. It may result in an increased risk of motor vehicle collisions, as well as problems focusing and learning. Insomnia can be short term, lasting for days or weeks, or long term, lasting more than a month.

Insomnia can occur independently or as a result of another problem. Conditions that can result in insomnia include psychological stress, chronic pain, heart failure, hyperthyroidism, heartburn, restless leg syndrome, menopause, certain medications, and drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. Other risk factors include working night shifts and sleep apnea. Diagnosis is based on sleep habits and an examination to look for underlying causes. A sleep study may be done to look for underlying sleep disorders. Screening may be done with two questions: "do you experience difficulty sleeping?" and "do you have difficulty falling or staying asleep?"
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A sodium blood test measures the amount of sodium in your blood. Sodium is a type of electrolyte. Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals that help maintain fluid levels and the balance of chemicals in your body called acids and bases. Sodium also helps your nerves and muscles work properly.

You get most of the sodium you need in your diet. Once your body takes in enough sodium, the kidneys get rid of the rest in your urine. If your sodium blood levels are too high or too low, it may mean that you have a problem with your kidneys, dehydration, or another medical condition.

Other names: Na test

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The SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes SARS. A coronavirus is a common form of virus that typically causes upper-respiratory tract illnesses. The common cold results from a kind of coronavirus.Six different kinds of coronavirus are known to infect humans. Four of these are common, and most people will experience at least one of them at some time in their life.The two other types cause SARS and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). These are less common but far more deadly.Before SARS appeared, coronaviruses had not been particularly dangerous to humans, but they had been known to cause severe diseases in animals.As a result, scientists first thought that animals transmitted SARS-CoV to humans. They now believe that an animal virus changed into a new, more deadly strain.


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Seasonal affective disorder* is a form of depression also known as SAD, seasonal depression or winter depression. People with SAD experience mood changes and symptoms similar to depression. The symptoms usually occur during the fall and winter months when there is less sunlight and usually improve with the arrival of spring. The most difficult months for people with SAD in the U.S. tend to be January and February. While it is much less common, some people experience SAD in the summer.SAD is more than just “winter blues.” The symptoms can be distressing and overwhelming and can interfere with daily functioning. However, it can be treated. About 5 percent of adults in the U.S. experience SAD and it typically lasts about 40 percent of the year. It is more common among women than men.SAD has been linked to a biochemical imbalance in the brain prompted by shorter daylight hours and less sunlight in winter. As seasons change, people experience a shift in their biological internal clock or circadian rhythm that can cause them to be out of step with their daily schedule. SAD is more common in people living far from the equator where there are fewer daylight hours in the winter.


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Sjogren's (SHOW-grins) syndrome is a disorder of your immune system identified by its two most common symptoms — dry eyes and a dry mouth.The condition often accompanies other immune system disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. In Sjogren's syndrome, the mucous membranes and moisture-secreting glands of your eyes and mouth are usually affected first — resulting in decreased tears and saliva.Although you can develop Sjogren's syndrome at any age, most people are older than 40 at the time of diagnosis. The condition is much more common in women. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms.

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Staph infections are caused by staphylococcus bacteria, types of germs commonly found on the skin or in the nose of even healthy individuals. Most of the time, these bacteria cause no problems or result in relatively minor skin infections.

But staph infections can turn deadly if the bacteria invade deeper into your body, entering your bloodstream, joints, bones, lungs or heart. A growing number of otherwise healthy people are developing life-threatening staph infections.

Treatment usually involves antibiotics and drainage of the infected area. However, some staph infections no longer respond to common antibiotics.

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious form of pneumonia. It is caused by a virus that was first identified in 2003. Infection with the SARS virus causes acute respiratory distress (severe breathing difficulty) and sometimes death.


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You probably know that smoking tobacco isn’t great for your health. A recent report by the U.S. surgeon general attributes nearly half a million deaths annually to smoking. Your lungs are one of the organs that’s most impacted by tobacco. Here’s how smoking affects your lungs and your overall health.


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Some sexually transmitted infections can spread through the use of unsterilized drug needles, from mother to baby during childbirth, or breast-feeding, and blood transfusions.

Sexually transmitted infections have been around for thousands of years. The genital areas are generally moist and warm environments - ideal for the growth of yeasts, viruses, and bacteria.

Microorganisms that exists on the skin or mucus membranes of the male or female genital area can be transmitted, as can organisms in semen, vaginal secretions, or blood during sexual intercourse.


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Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis. Whether they are caused by a health problem or by too much stress, sleep disorders are becoming increasingly common in the United States. In fact, more than 75 percent of Americans between ages 20 and 59 report having sleeping difficulties fairly regularly.

Most people occasionally experience sleeping problems due to stress, hectic schedules, and other outside influences. However, when these issues begin to occur on a regular basis and interfere with daily life, they may indicate a sleeping disorder.

Depending on the type of sleep disorder, people may have a difficult time falling asleep and may feel extremely tired throughout the day. The lack of sleep can have a negative impact on energy, mood, concentration, and overall health.

In some cases, sleep disorders can be a symptom of another medical or mental health condition. These sleeping problems may eventually go away once treatment is obtained for the underlying cause. When sleep disorders aren’t caused by another condition, treatment normally involves a combination of medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

It’s important to receive a diagnosis and treatment right away if you suspect you might have a sleep disorder. When left untreated, the negative effects of sleep disorders can lead to further health consequences. They can also affect your performance at work, cause strain in relationships, and impair your ability to perform daily activities.

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