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An exercise ball, also known as a Swiss Ball, is a ball constructed of soft elastic with a diameter of approximately 35 to 85 centimeters (14 to 34 inches) and filled with air. The air pressure is changed by removing a valve stem and either filling with air or letting the ball deflate. It is most often used in physical therapy, athletic training and exercise. It can also be used for weight training. The ball, while often referred to as a Swiss ball, is also known by a number of different names, including balance ball, birth ball, body ball, ball, fitness ball, gym ball, gymnastic ball, physio ball, pilates ball, Pezzi ball, stability ball, Swedish ball, therapy ball, or yoga ball


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If you are bored of lifting heavy weights, doing yoga and other regular stretching exercises then AEROBICS is the right option for you. You will not only enjoy doing it but also reap several health benefits out of it. Aerobics is a kind of cardio workout that causes you to breathe harder, makes you sweat and gets your heart pumping faster than at rest. Dance moves you perform in this, makes the heart and lungs work harder as the body’s need for oxygen is increased. So, get your heart pumping with Bong beauty Bipasha Basu, performing aerobics dance workout.


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A brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) test measures how your brain processes the sounds you hear. The BAER test records your brainwaves in response to clicks or other audio tones that are played for you. The test is also called a brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) or auditory brainstem response (ABR) test.


A BAER test can help to diagnose hearing loss and nervous system disorders, especially in newborns, young children, and others who may not be able to participate in a standard hearing test.


BAER tests are often administered to canines and are the only scientifically reliable way to test a dog’s ability to hear with one or both ears.

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A barium enema is a type of X-ray imaging test that allows doctors to examine your lower intestinal tract. It involves delivering a contrast solution that contains the metallic element barium into your rectum while a technician takes X-ray images of the area. The barium solution will be delivered using an enema — a process in which your doctor pushes a liquid into your rectum through your anus.


The barium solution helps to improve the quality of the X-ray images by highlighting certain areas of tissue. The X-ray used in this procedure is known as fluoroscopy. It allows the radiologist to see your internal organs in motion by tracking the flow of the barium solution through your intestinal tract.


The test doesn’t require painkillers or sedation, but there may be moments of slight discomfort.

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Barium tests are used to help see the outline of the upper parts of the gut (gastrointestinal tract) such as the gullet (oesophagus), stomach and upper gut (small intestines). The gut (gastrointestinal tract) does not show up very well on ordinary X-ray pictures. However, if you drink a white liquid that contains a chemical called barium sulfate, the outline of the upper parts of the gut (oesophagus, stomach and small intestines) shows up clearly on X-ray pictures. This is because X-rays do not pass through barium.

Depending on what part of your gut is being looked at, you may have one or more of the tests listed below. In each test, the barium coats the lining of the gut being tested. Therefore, abnormalities in the lining or structure of the gut can be seen on the X-ray pictures. In each of the following tests, several X-ray pictures are taken using low-dose X-rays. The total amount of radiation for each test is quite small and thought to be safe. The X-ray machine is usually linked to a TV monitor. Still pictures, or a video recording of X-ray pictures taken in quick succession, can be taken if necessary.

In this test you drink some barium liquid. The barium liquid is often fruit-flavoured so it is pleasant to drink. You stand in front of an X-ray machine whilst X-ray pictures are taken as you swallow. This test aims to look for problems in the gullet (oesophagus). These include a narrowing (stricture), hiatus hernias, tumours, reflux from the stomach, disorders of swallowing, etc. You will usually be asked not to eat or drink for a few hours before this test. A barium swallow test takes about 10 minutes.

This is similar to a barium swallow (above). However, it aims to look for problems in the stomach and the first part of the gut (small intestine), known as the duodenum. These problems may include ulcers, small fleshy lumps (polyps), tumours, etc. You drink some barium liquid but you then lie on a couch whilst X-ray pictures are taken over your tummy (abdomen). It may take a little longer to do than a barium swallow.

So that the barium coats all around the lining of the stomach, the doctor doing the test (radiologist) may do one or more of the following:

Ask you to swallow some bicarbonate powder and citric acid before swallowing the barium. These 'fizz up' when they mix in the stomach and make some gas. (You may have to resist the urge to burp.) The gas expands the stomach and duodenum and also pushes the barium to coat the lining of the stomach and duodenum. This makes the X-ray pictures much clearer. It is the shape and contours of the lining of the stomach and duodenum which need to be seen most clearly on the pictures.

Ask you to turn over on to your stomach on the couch. Various X-ray pictures may be taken whilst you are in different positions. You may be given an injection of a drug that makes the muscles in the stomach and gut relax.You will usually be asked not to eat anything for several hours before this test. (Food particles in the gut can make it difficult to interpret the X-rays.) However, you may be allowed sips of water up to two hours before the test.


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A barium meal is a diagnostic test used to detect abnormalities of the esophagus, stomach and small bowel using X-ray imaging. X-rays can only highlight bone and other radio-opaque tissues and would not usually enable visualization of soft tissue. However, infusion of the contrast medium barium sulfate, a radioopaque salt, coats the lining of the digestive tract, allowing accurate X-ray imaging of this part of the abdomen.

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Have your dinners planned for the week within seconds!  As a Scramble member, each week you receive a suggested meal plan with:


Five family-friendly dinners complete with main course and one to two easy, healthy side dishes

Meals feature seasonal fruits and vegetables for great flavors and savings

All meals have full nutritional information by meal and by individual dish

An organized shopping list with items listed by grocery store section


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A barium swallow is an imaging test that uses X-rays to look at your upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Your upper GI tract includes the back of your mouth and throat (pharynx) and your esophagus.


You may have just a barium swallow. Or this test may be done as part of an upper GI series. This series looks at your esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum).


X-rays use a small amount of radiation to create images of your bones and internal organs. X-rays are most often used to find bone or joint problems, or to check the heart and lungs. A barium swallow is one type of X-ray.


Fluoroscopy is often used during a barium swallow. Fluoroscopy is a kind of X-ray “movie.”


The test also uses barium. Barium is a substance that makes certain area of the body show up more clearly on an X-ray. The radiologist will be able to see size and shape of the pharynx and esophagus. He or she will also be able see how you swallow. These details might not be seen on a standard X-ray. Barium is used only for imaging tests for the GI tract.

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A bone density test is the only test that can diagnose osteoporosis before a broken bone occurs. This test helps to estimate the density of your bones and your chance of breaking a bone. NOF recommends a bone density test of the hip and spine by a central DXA machine to diagnose osteoporosis. DXA stands for dual energy x-ray absorptiometry.


You can find out whether you have osteoporosis or if you should be concerned about your bones by getting a bone density test. Some people also call it a bone mass measurement test. This test uses a machine to measure your bone density. It estimates the amount of bone in your hip, spine and sometimes other bones. Your test result will help your healthcare provider make recommendations to help you protect your bones.


Are you a postmenopausal woman or man age 50 and older? Have you recently broken a bone? If you answered “yes” to both questions, you should talk to your doctor or other healthcare provider about getting a bone density test if you’ve never had one.

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Vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies are a lack of these two B complex vitamins that the body needs for several important functions. They are required to make normal red blood cells (RBCs), repair tissues and cells, synthesize DNA (the genetic material in cells). B12 is also important for normal nerve cell function. B12 and folate (also known as folic acid or vitamin B9) are nutrients that cannot be produced in the body and must be...

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B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone produced by your heart. N-terminal (NT)-pro hormone BNP (NT-proBNP) is a non-active prohormone that is released from the same molecule that produces BNP. Both BNP and NT-proBNP are released in response to changes in pressure inside the heart. These changes can be related to heart failure and other cardiac problems. Levels goes up when heart failure develops or gets worse, and levels goes down when heart failure is stable. In most cases, BNP and NT-proBNP levels are higher in patients with heart failure than people who have normal heart function.

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Babesiosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the protozoan parasite Babesia microti. The infection is acquired by contact with Ixodes ticks carrying the parasite. The deer mouse is the animal reservoir and, overall, the epidemiology of this infection is much like that of Lyme disease. Babesiosis is most prevalent in the Northeast, Upper Midwest, and Pacific Coast of the United States.


Infectious forms (sporozoites) are injected during tick bites and the organism enters the vascular system where it infects RBCs. In this intraerythrocytic stage it becomes disseminated throughout the reticuloendothelial system. Asexual reproduction occurs in RBCs, and daughter cells (merozoites) are formed which are liberated on rupture (hemolysis) of the RBC.


Most cases of babesiosis are probably subclinical or mild, but the infection can be severe and life threatening, especially in older or asplenic patients. Fever, fatigue, malaise, headache, and other flu-like symptoms occur most commonly. In the most severe cases, hemolysis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and shock may develop. Patients may have hepatomegaly and splenomegaly.


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The Bence-Jones protein (BJP) test measures the level of BJP in your urine. Bence-Jones proteins are named for Henry Bence-Jones, a physician and chemist who first isolated them in 1847. These proteins are not present in healthy urine samples and are usually a sign of multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma is a type of bone marrow cancer that is most common in people who are older than 60 years.


Your bone marrow is found in the center of your larger bones. It makes red and white blood cells as well as platelets. Multiple myeloma is a condition where your bone marrow makes too much of a type of white blood cell.


Normally, white blood cells make many different types of antibodies. They play an important role in your immune system. However, when you have multiple myeloma, one white blood cell line grows out of control. It produces only one type of antibody. These cells then crowd out the normal cells. Your body is then vulnerable to illness.

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The quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) blood test measures the level of hCG hormone present in a sample of your blood. HCG is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. Your doctor may refer to the hCG quantitative test by another name, including:


quantitative serial beta-hCG test

repeat quantitative beta-hCG test

beta-hCG blood test

quantitative blood pregnancy test

In some cases, the hCG quantitative blood test may also be used to evaluate and manage certain types of cancer.

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Beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-M) is a small membrane protein (11,800 Dalton) associated with the heavy chains of class I major histocompatibility complex proteins and is, therefore, on the surface of all nucleated cells. The small size allows beta-2-M to pass through the glomerular membrane, but it is almost completely reabsorbed in the proximal tubules.


Serum beta-2-M levels are elevated in diseases associated with increased cell turnover. Levels are also elevated in several benign conditions such as chronic inflammation, liver disease, renal dysfunction, some acute viral infections, and a number of malignancies, especially hematologic malignancies associated with the B-lymphocyte lineage.


In multiple myeloma, beta-2-M is a powerful prognostic factor and values <4 mcg/mL are considered a good prognostic factor.


In renal tubular disease, serum levels are low and urine levels are high. Although urine beta-2-M has been used to assess tubular dysfunction, it is not stable in urine below pH 5.5.


See Laboratory Screening Tests for Suspected Multiple Myeloma in Special Instructions.

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This test looks for bilirubin in your blood or urine.

Bilirubin is a substance made when your body breaks down old red blood cells. This is a normal process. Bilirubin is also part of bile, which your liver makes to help digest the food you eat.


A small amount of bilirubin in your blood is normal. Healthy adults make 250 to 350 milligrams (mg) of bilirubin each day.

Bilirubin that is bound to a certain protein (albumin) in the blood is called unconjugated, or indirect, bilirubin. Conjugated, or direct, bilirubin travels from the liver into the small intestine. A very small amount passes into your kidneys and is excreted in your urine. This bilirubin also gives urine its distinctive yellow color.


This test is usually done to look for liver problems, such as hepatitis, or blockages, such as gallstones.

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Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that’s in everyone’s blood and stool. Sometimes the liver can’t process the bilirubin in the body. This can be due to an excess of bilirubin, an obstruction, or inflammation of the liver. When your body has too much bilirubin, your skin and the whites of your eyes will start to yellow. This condition is called jaundice. A bilirubin test will help determine if you have any of these conditions.


Bilirubin is made in the body when the hemoglobin protein in old red blood cells is broken down. The breakdown of old cells is a normal, healthy process. After circulating in your blood, bilirubin then travels to your liver. In the liver, bilirubin is conjugated, mixed into bile, and then excreted into the bile ducts and stored in your gallbladder. Eventually, the bile is released into the small intestine to help digest fats. It’s ultimately excreted within your stool.


Bilirubin attached by the liver to the glucose-derived acid, glucuronic acid, is called direct, or conjugated, bilirubin. Bilirubin not attached to glucuronic acid is called indirect, or unconjugated, bilirubin. All the bilirubin in your blood together is called total bilirubin.


A comprehensive bilirubin blood test will get an accurate count of all three bilirubin levels in your blood: direct, indirect, and total.


In both adults and children, symptoms related to high bilirubin can involve jaundice, a yellowing of the skin or eyes, fatigue, itchy skin, dark urine, and low appetite.

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A Liver Function Test, also known as LFT, refers to a series of tests carried out to gather information about a patient’s liver conditions. Certain diseases of the liver, which seem mild in their initial stages, can develop to become chronic later on. Hence, proper diagnosis of liver conditions is pretty crucial for the detection and control of these ailments in time.


Liver function tests are performed on blood samples of the patients, and check the levels of various enzymes and proteins present in it. There are enzymes that get released into the blood only when the liver has undergone some damage. While some of the tests are carried out for functionality, a few others may be performed to check the condition of the biliary tract. Cellular integrity tests are also included in the series.


Liver function tests (LFTs), are a group of blood tests that provide details about the liver and identify any inflammation, malfunctioning or damage to the liver. Liver tests may be done together in a panel or tested separately. The list of tests include: Total Protein Albumin Bilirubin (Total & Direct) Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) or AST Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT) or ALT.

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The dimorphic fungus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, causes blastomycosis. When the organism is inhaled, it causes pulmonary disease-cough, pain, and hemoptysis, along with fever and night sweats. It commonly spreads to the skin, bone, or internal genitalia where suppuration and granulomas are typical. Occasionally, primary cutaneous lesions after trauma are encountered; however, this type of infection is uncommon.

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A bleeding time test determines how quickly your blood clots to stop bleeding. The test involves making small, superficial cuts on your skin. They’re similar to light scratches.


The test is a basic assessment of how well your blood platelets work -form clots. Platelets are tiny cell fragments that circulate in your blood. They’re the first cells to react to a blood vessel injury. They seal off the wound to prevent more blood from escaping.

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A blood culture is a test that checks for foreign invaders like bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms in your blood. Having these pathogens in your bloodstream can be a sign of a blood infection, a condition known as bacteremia. A positive blood culture means that you have bacteria in your blood.

This type of infection involves the blood that circulates within your entire body. Bacteria that start on your skin or in your lungs, urine, or gastrointestinal tract are common sources of blood infections.

An infection can spread to your blood and become systemic if it’s severe or if your immune system isn’t able to keep it contained. A systemic infection is known as sepsis.

The test for a blood culture involves a simple blood draw. A laboratory tests the blood sample and forwards the results to your doctor, who will use the findings to help determine what’s needed to treat any infection.
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A blood gas test measures the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. It may also be used to determine the pH of the blood, or how acidic it is. The test is commonly known as a blood gas analysis or arterial blood gas (ABG) test.


Your red blood cells transport oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout your body. These are known as blood gases. As blood passes through your lungs, oxygen flows into the blood while carbon dioxide flows out of the blood into the lungs. The blood gas test can determine how well your lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.


Imbalances in the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels of your blood can indicate the presence of certain medical conditions. These may include:


kidney failure

heart failure

uncontrolled diabetes

hemorrhage

chemical poisoning

a drug overdose

shock

Your doctor may order a blood gas test when you’re showing symptoms of any of these conditions. The test requires the collection of a small amount of blood from an artery. It’s a safe and simple procedure that only takes a few minutes to complete.

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Arterial blood gases (ABGs) are commonly used for estimating the acid-base status, oxygenation and carbon dioxide concentration of unwell patients. However, arterial blood can be difficult to obtain due to weak pulses or patient movement. Due to thicker, muscular and innervated walls, arteries are also more painful to puncture than veins. As such, a venous blood gas (VBG) is an alternative method of estimating pH and other variables.

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Blood typing is a test that determines a person’s blood type. The test is essential if you need a blood transfusion or are planning to donate blood. Not all blood types are compatible, so it’s important to know your blood group. Receiving blood that’s incompatible with your blood type could trigger a dangerous immune response.

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Sometimes a sample of bone marrow must be examined to determine why blood cells are abnormal or why there are too few or too many of a specific kind of blood cell. A doctor can take two different types of bone marrow samples:


Bone marrow aspirate: Removes fluid and cells by inserting a needle into the bone marrow and sucking out fluid and cells


Bone marrow core biopsy: Removes an intact piece of bone marrow using a coring device (similar to a larger diameter needle)

The bone marrow aspirate shows what cells, normal and abnormal, are present in the bone marrow. The core biopsy shows how full the bone marrow is with cells and where the cells are located within the marrow. Both types of samples are usually taken from the hipbone (iliac crest), although aspirates are rarely taken from the breastbone (sternum). In very young children, bone marrow samples are occasionally taken from one of the bones in the lower leg (tibia).

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Bronchial washing is part of a procedure called a bronchoscopy, in which a physician looks into the lungs with a fiber-optic bronchoscope to check for irregularities and take tissue samples. The physician injects saline through the bronchoscope into the lung and then suctions it back out. By checking the wash return fluid, the doctor can diagnose bleeding, pneumonia, industrial pollutants, fungal infections and different kinds of lung cancer. Patients undergoing bronchial washing usually receive topical anesthesia with sedation. Most side effects of bronchial washing are mild and include coughing, sore throat and a sleepy feeling from being sedated.

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This is a blood test for brucellosis. Brucellosis is an infectious disease usually caused by handling animals or milk products infected with the brucella bacteria. If you have brucellosis, your body will make certain antibodies to fight the brucella bacteria. This test looks for those antibodies in your blood.


The brucella bacteria can infect dogs and livestock, including cows, sheep, camels, goats, and pigs. Recently brucella bacteria have also been found in ocean mammals, including seals.


The disease is rare in the U.S. Fewer than 200 cases are reported here each year. It's more commonly found in Latin America, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean. This is why it's often called Mediterranean or Malta fever. It's also called Undulant fever, Bang's disease, and Gibraltar fever.


If you are exposed to brucella bacteria, you may develop brucellosis. Your symptoms may not show up right away. But if the disease isn't treated after a few months, you may start to feel unusually weak. You may get a fever and chills, headaches, backache, muscle and joint pain, and sweats. You may lose your appetite and appear anorexic. If untreated, the bacteria can sometimes damage the heart, joints, or central nervous system. They can also cause infections that keep coming back. If you are pregnant and have brucellosis, it may cause a miscarriage or infect your unborn child. 

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The test is a simple method to identifying a person’s gender and establish sexual identity in newborns and in adults. Earlier the method was popularly employed in competitive sports to identify males masquerading as females. 


The mouth has to be rinsed and washed before the test. A spatula is used to gently scrape the inside of the person’s cheek. This can be done by a health care provider or by self. A smear of this buccal sample is made on a slide, stained and observed under the microscope.

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A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen test, can provide important information about your kidney function. The main job of your kidneys is to remove waste and extra fluid from your body. If you have kidney disease, this waste material can build up in your blood and may lead to serious health problems, including high blood pressure, anemia, and heart disease.


The test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your blood. Urea nitrogen is one of the waste products removed from your blood by your kidneys. Higher than normal BUN levels may be a sign that your kidneys aren't working efficiently.


People with early kidney disease may not have any symptoms. A BUN test can help uncover kidney problems at an early stage when treatment can be more effective.


Other names for a BUN test: Urea nitrogen test, serum BUN

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Back pain is a common reason for absence from work and doctor visits. Although back pain may be painful and uncomfortable, it is not usually serious.

Even though back pain can affect people of any age, it is significantly more common among adults aged between 35 and 55 years. Experts say that back pain is associated with the way our bones, muscles and ligaments in our backs work and connect together.

Pain in the lower back may be linked to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, lower back muscles, abdomen and pelvic internal organs, and the skin around the lumbar area. Pain in the upper back may be due to disorders of the aorta, tumors in the chest, and spine inflammation.

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Defination

Bacterial vaginosis also is referred to as nonspecific vaginitis, is a vaginal condition that can produce vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of certain kinds of bacteria in the vagina. In the past, the condition was called Gardnerella vaginitis, after the bacteria that were thought to cause the condition. However, the newer name, bacterial vaginosis, reflects the fact that there are a number of species of bacteria that naturally live in the vaginal area and may grow to excess, rather than a true infection with foreign bacteria, such as occurs with many sexually-transmitted disease

Facts & Symptoms


Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of atypical bacteria in the vagina. It is not a true bacterial infection but rather an imbalance of the bacteria that are normally present in the vagina.
Bacterial vaginosis is not dangerous, but it can cause disturbing symptoms.
Most women do not experience symptoms of bacterial vaginosis, but when they do they are:

    vaginal discharge, and
    vaginal odor.

In diagnosing bacterial vaginosis, it is important to exclude other serious vaginal infections, such as the STDs gonorrhea and Chlamydia.
Treatment options for relief of bacterial vaginosis include prescription oral antibiotics and vaginal gels. Metronidazole (Flagyl) is one option for treating bacterial vaginosis.
Serious complications of bacterial vaginosis can occur during pregnancy, and recurrence is possible even after


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Bad breath, also known as halitosis or fetor oris, affects an estimated 25% of people, globally. There are a number of potential causes of halitosis but the vast majority come down to oral hygiene.

Halitosis can cause significant worry, embarrassment and anxiety but, generally, it is relatively easy to remedy.

In this article, we will discuss the potential origins of bad breath, diagnosis and how to treat it.
   

Fast facts on bad breath

Here are some key points about bad breath. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

    Bad breath is estimated to affect 1 in 4 people globally
    The most common cause of halitosis is bad oral hygiene
    If particles of food are left in the mouth, their breakdown by bacteria produces sulfur compounds
    There are a number of common causes of bad breath, including smoking, tooth decay and alcohol consumption
    Keeping the mouth hydrated can reduce mouth odor
    Bad breath in children is often due to a trapped item in the nasal cavity
    Rarer causes of bad breath include bowel obstruction, ketoacidosis and aspiration pneumonia
    The best treatment for bad breath is regular brushing, flossing and hydration
    Crash diets can cause bad breath because of the build-up of ketones.

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1. The Golden Rule

Do: Make sure you always (and we mean always) remove your makeup before hitting the sheets. The skin needs to breathe overnight. And makeup prevents that, as leaving it on overnight clogs the pores which may cause blemishes and/or blackheads. Don’t possess a makeup remover? Just put some olive oil on a cotton pad and gently massage the oil onto your face to get rid of the makeup and dirt.
Don’t: Forget that exfoliation is indispensable. At least once or twice a week, exfoliate your skin to remove the layers of dead skin, sure to leave you with a more healthy glow and brighter skin. You can also apply a paste of walnut in powder form with yogurt to exfoliate your skin, as the antioxidants present in walnuts help remove dirt and promote radiant skin.
 

Never forget to exfoliate your skin and remove the makeup before calling it a night.

2. Sun and Skin

Do: Apply sunscreen with SPF of at least 15 that blocks both UVA and UVB rays. Since a lifetime of sun exposure can cause wrinkles, age spots and other skin problems, you have to protect your skin from the sun. Make sure the label reads ‘noncomedogenic’ or ‘nonacnegenic’ so that the product does not tend to block pores.  

Don’t: Skip the sunscreen, whether it's cloudy or cold outside (no excuses). If you’re heading to a beach or around reflective surfaces like snow or ice, lather your skin up with some more sunscreen with SPF of at least 30.
 

Sunscreen with SPF of at least 15 that blocks both UVA and UVB rays.

3. You are What You Eat

Do: Keep a note of what you put on your plate. Eat fresh fruits, greens, sufficient protein and vitamins. A diet rich in vitamin C and low in fats and sugar promotes radiant skin. Consider a low-sugar diet, which can keep insulin levels down, allowing cells to maintain a healthy balance.

"Don’t: Eat spicy and fermented foods, salt, citrus fruits, fried food. Instead favour blander foods such as rice, oatmeal and applesauce”, advises American author and Ayurvedic physician, Vasant Lad, in The Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies.


Fresh fruits and greens is what healthy skin needs.

4. Sweat It Out!

Do: Exercise regularly. Running, jogging and yoga will give your body the necessary blood circulation, and also accelerate the cleansing process of your entire body. You will notice a glow on your face after working out. Racing against time? Just take a brisk walk around the block.

Don’t: Skip skincare before and after a workout. Apply a toner to help minimize oil production before heading out. Exfoliate after, and then apply shea butter or olive oil to moisturize the skin.
 
Running, jogging and yoga will accelerate the cleaning process of your body.

5. Beauty Sleep

Do: Try to sleep at least 8 hours every night. If you don’t get enough shut eye, your skin gets tired just like you - it sags and you get bags. So don’t risk it. You can also apply honey on your face twice or thrice a week to naturally soothe and heal your skin.

“Don’t: Forget to wash and moisturize your face before going to bed”, recommends Dr. Rahul Nagar, Dermatologist, Max Hospitals. “For dry skin, use milder cleansers that are free from alcohol. Apply lots of moisturizer, and avoid hot water as it dries out the skin excessively.”
 

Never forget to wash your face before sleeping and moisturize well.

6. H2O to The Rescue

Do: Hydrate yourself. Drink lots of water daily, at least 8 glasses if not more. Also, eats fruits and vegetables that have a high water content such as watermelon, cucumber, orange, strawberry, grapefruit and cantaloupe. Ayurvedic physician, Vasant Lad recommends to “drink water from a blue coloured bottle”, since it has a cooling effect.

Don’t: Ignore rose water. It helps prevent and reduce eye puffiness in the morning, maintains pH balance and naturally hydrates your skin if you spritz it on during the day.
 
Rose water maintains pH balance and  naturally hydrates the skin.

7. Goodbye Acne

“Do: Wash your face with warm water, three times a day, and gently massage your face in circular motions, ensuring that the cleanser contains alpha hydroxyl acid or beta hydroxyl acid. Face packs that contain multani mitti (fuller’s earth) work really well too. After cleansing, pat dry and apply a lotion which contains benzoyl peroxide”, suggests Dr. Zaheer Ahmed, Dermatologist, Max Hospitals. Benzoyl peroxide appears to be effective due to its antibacterial actions.

Don’t: Pop pimples because it can lead to more swelling, redness, and even scarring. Feel a pimple is on its way? Just clean the area with rose water, and place a chilled green tea bag for 10 minutes. Also, if you wear glasses or sunglasses, make sure you clean them frequently to keep oil from clogging the pores around your eyes and nose.
 
Never pop your pimples. Use rose water or chilled green tea bags.

8. Go Back to Your Roots

Do: Use Ayurvedic scrubs to nourish the skin, and help it breathe better. Luckily for you, everything you need is already in your kitchen. 2 tbsp chickpea flour, ½ tsp turmeric powder, a pinch of camphor and sandalwood with some rose water/milk/water is your perfect skincare pack. Yes, the secrets of beauty lies in ancient Ayurveda.

Don’t: Neglect the basics. Make Sudarshan Kriya your beauty mantra. Yes, it’s that easy. Just breathing right could rid you of spots and pimples. Nidhi Gureja, Art of Living, says “Sudarshan Kriya is a breathing technique which incorporates specific natural rhythms of the breath that harmonize the body, mind and emotions. This helps releasing accumulated stresses, and each individual’s experience is different.”
 
Sudarshan Kriya is a breathing technique which incorporates specific natural rhythms that helps in releasing accumulated stresses.

9. Spa Day Everyday?

Do: Have a regular skin care regimen. “For dry skin, use a fresh cherry mask. Apply the pulp of fresh cherries on your face before going to bed. Leave for 15 minutes and wash with lukewarm water”, adds American author Vasant Lad.

Don’t: Forget to pamper yourself. A gentle facial massage with oils could work wonders. Depending on your skin type, choose oils from mustard, coconut, almond or Kumkadi as they are excellent nourishing agents which help to get glowing skin. Better still – switch on some soothing instrumental music. After 20 minutes, what do you have? Beautiful skin and a relaxed you.

Pamper yourself occasionally with spa treatments.

10. Healthy Habits

Do: Take out time for yourself, and try to avoid stress as much as possible. Have you ever noticed that when you are stressed, you tend to break out more? This is because stress causes your body to produce cortisol and other hormones, making the skin more oily. Practice stress management techniques like breathing exercises, yoga and meditation. The more you meditate, the more you radiate.

Don’t: Neglect your jawline and facial muscles. For just 5 minutes a day, perform a few facial exercises. You can jut out your lower lip in such a way that wrinkles are created on the chin, then lower your chin to your chest. Another exercise that works wonders is to look up towards the ceiling and pout. It stretches out the muscles making the skin more firm. “18 till I die”, why not?
 
The more you meditate, the more you radiate.

You’re dressed to perfection, yet you need something to complete the look. Your smile! While we spend so much time and energy on honing our bodies and looks, we forget to express our inner joy and happiness. “Keeping a smile on your face will help maintain the tone of your facial muscles and skin. People may say you look 10 years younger than you are!”, adds the Ayurvedic physician, Vasant Lad.
   

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Don’t let the bed bugs bite

Despite their role in an adorable bedtime proverb, bed bugs are pesky little pests. They sneak into your bed, your furniture, even your carpet, and while you sleep or watch TV, they bite you. The next morning, you’re left wondering why you’re red and itchy.


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What are bed bugs?

Bed bugs are small, flat, oval-shaped insects. They do not have wings and rely on humans to carry them from one place to the next. Bed bugs are a reddish-brown color and can be between 1 and 7 millimeters. They feed on blood from humans or animals, and they’re most active at night, feeding on their victims while they sleep.

What do bed bug bites look like?

Some people will not experience a reaction to a bed bug bite at all. Those that do experience symptoms of a bite are likely to experience one or more of the following:


    a bite with a red, swollen area and a dark red center
    bites in a line or grouped together in a small area
    blisters or hives at the bite site


Bites can happen anywhere on the body. Most commonly they occur on areas of skin that are exposed while sleeping, such as the face, arms, legs, and hands.


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Can you treat and eliminate the bed bugs on your own? Bed bugs are challenging pests to get rid of, since they hide so well and reproduce so quickly. In addition, the egg stage is resistant to many forms of treatment, so a single attempt may not be sufficient to complete the job.

Treating bed bugs is complex. Your likelihood of success depends on many factors, including:
Person inspecting furniture for pest infestation

    Extent of the infestation.
    Site-specific challenges.
        Clutter.
        Neighbors with infestations.
        Ability of all of the residents to participate.

Achieving complete control can take weeks to months, depending on the nature and extent of the infestation, and everyone will need to cooperate and do their part.

Before starting, you should lay out all of the steps on a calendar. The following steps will help you begin:

    Identify the problem
    Develop a strategy
    Keep the infestation from expanding
    Prepare for treatment
    Kill the bed bugs
    Evaluate and prevent


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What causes pressure sores?

Things that cause pressure sores include:

    Pressure on the skin and tissues. This is the most common cause.
    Sliding down in a bed or chair, which can cause the skin to fold over itself (shear force).
    Being pulled across bed sheets or other surfaces, which can cause friction burns.
    Excess moisture, such as from sweat, urine, or feces. Skin that is often wet is more likely to break down and form pressure sores.

    
    
What increases the risk of getting pressure sores?

Things that make a person more likely to get pressure sores include:

    Not being able to move easily. This often happens because of a spinal injury, paralysis, coma, or surgery.
    Poor bladder or bowel control.
    Poor nutrition. A diet that doesn't have enough protein can lead to unhealthy skin and slow healing.
    Decreased alertness, which may be due to a health problem or taking certain medicines. People who are not alert may not take the steps to prevent pressure sores or understand why prevention is important.
    Aging. As people age, their skin becomes thinner, drier, and less elastic, so it is more easily injured.
    Smoking. Smoking dries out the skin and reduces blood flow to the skin.
    Having a health problem that interferes with healing, such as diabetes.

    
Caring for a Pressure Sore

Stage I or II sores will heal if cared for carefully. Stage III and IV sores are harder to treat and may take a long time to heal. Here's how to care for a pressure sore at home.

Relieve the pressure on the area.

    Use special pillows, foam cushions, booties, or mattress pads to reduce the pressure. Some pads are water- or air-filled to help support and cushion the area. What type of cushion you use depends on your wound and whether you are in bed or in a wheelchair. Talk with your doctor about what choices would be best for you, including what shapes and types of material.
    Change positions often. If you are in a wheelchair, try to change your position every 15 minutes. If you are in bed, you should be moved about every 2 hours.

Care for the sore as directed by your health care provider. Keep the wound clean to prevent infection. Clean the sore every time you change a dressing.

    For a stage I sore, you can wash the area gently with mild soap and water. If needed, use a moisture barrier to protect the area from bodily fluids. Ask your provider what type of moisturizer to use.
    Stage II pressure sores should be cleaned with a salt water (saline) rinse to remove loose, dead tissue. Or, your provider may recommend a specific cleanser.
    DO NOT use hydrogen peroxide or iodine cleansers. They can damage skin.
    Keep the sore covered with a special dressing. This protects against infection and helps keep the sore moist so it can heal.
    Talk with your provider about what type of dressing to use. Depending on the size and stage of the sore, you may use a film, gauze, gel, foam, or other type of dressing.
    Most stage III and IV sores will be treated by your provider. Ask about any special instructions for home care.

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Bedwetting, or nocturnal enuresis, refers to the unintentional passage of urine during sleep. Enuresis is the medical term for wetting, whether in the clothing during the day or in bed at night. Another name for enuresis is urinary incontinence.

For infants and young children, urination is involuntary. Wetting is normal for them. Most children achieve some degree of bladder control by 4 years of age. Daytime control is usually achieved first, while nighttime control comes later.

The age at which bladder control is expected varies considerably.

    Some parents expect dryness at a very early age, while others not until much later. Such a time line may reflect the culture and attitudes of the parents and caregivers.
    Factors that affect the age at which wetting is considered a problem include the following:
        The child's gender: Bedwetting is more common in boys.
        The child's development and maturity
        The child's overall physical and emotional health. Chronic illness and/or emotional and physical abuse may predispose to bedwetting.

Bedwetting is a very common problem.

    Parents must realize that enuresis is involuntary. The child who wets the bed needs parental support and reassurance.

Bedwetting is a treatable condition.

    While children with this embarrassing problem and their parents once had few choices except waiting to "grow out of it," there are now treatments that work for many children.
    Several devices, treatments, and techniques have been developed to help these children stay dry at night.

What Causes Bedwetting?

While bedwetting can be a symptom of an underlying disease, the large majority of children who wet the bed have no underlying illness. In fact, a true organic cause is identified in only a small percentage of children who wet the bed. However, this does not mean that the child who wets the bed can control it or is doing it on purpose. Children who wet the bed are not lazy, willful, or disobedient.

There are two types of bedwetting: primary and secondary. Primary bedwetting refers to bedwetting that has been ongoing since early childhood without a break. A child with primary bedwetting has never been dry at night for any significant length of time. Secondary bedwetting is bedwetting that starts again after the child has been dry at night for a significant period of time (at least six months).

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Dirt, bacteria, fungus, and other germs can get trapped inside your belly button and start to multiply. This can cause an infection. You might notice white, yellow, brown, or bloody discharge seeping out of your belly button. That discharge might also have an unpleasant smell. Here are a few of the causes of belly button discharge, and how to treat them.


Causes of belly button discharge include infections, surgery, and cysts.

Bacterial infection

The average belly button is home to nearly 70 different types of bacteria. If you don’t clean the area well, these bacteria could cause an infection. Piercings in your navel can also get infected.

Bacterial infections cause a yellow or green, foul-smelling discharge. You can also have swelling, pain, and a scab around your belly button.


Yeast infection

Candidiasis is a yeast infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast that typically grows in damp, dark areas of the body. It can occur between skin folds, such as in your groin area and under your arms. Yeast can also take up residence in your belly button, especially if you don’t keep it clean and dry.

Candidiasis in your belly button causes a red, itchy rash on your navel and may also cause a thick, white discharge.
Diabetes

People with diabetes are more likely to get yeast infections. This is because yeast feeds on sugar, and high blood sugar is a hallmark of poorly treated diabetes. A study of Brazilian woman showed that women with diabetes were more prone to vaginal yeast infections than women who didn’t have diabetes.

Other studies suggest that other forms of yeast infections, including yeast infections in the belly button, may be more common among people with diabetes.


Surgery

If you’ve recently had abdominal surgery, such as hernia repair, you might notice pus draining from your belly button. If this happens, call your doctor. It could be a sign of an infection that needs to be treated.

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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlarged prostate. The prostate goes through two main growth periods as a man ages. The first occurs early in puberty, when the prostate doubles in size. The second phase of growth begins around age 25 and continues during most of a man's life. As you age, your prostate may get larger. Benign prostatic hyperplasia often occurs with the second growth phase.


As the prostate enlarges, it can then squeeze down on your urethra. The bladder wall becomes thicker. Eventually, the bladder may weaken and lose the ability to empty completely, leaving some urine in the bladder. The narrowing of the urethra and urinary retention--the inability to empty the bladder completely--cause many of the problems associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. BPH is benign. This means it is not cancer. It does not cause nor lead to cancer. But BPH and cancer can happen at the same time.

BPH is common in aging men. About half of all men between the ages of 51 and 60 have BPH. Up to 90% of men over age 80 have BPH.
The Prostate


The prostate is part of the male reproductive system. It is about the size of a walnut and weighs about an ounce. The prostate is below the bladder and in front of the rectum. The prostate goes all the way around a tube called the urethra. The urethra carries urine from the bladder out through the penis. The main job of the prostate is to make fluid for semen. During ejaculation, sperm made in the testicles moves to the urethra. At the same time, fluid from the prostate and the seminal vesicles also moves into the urethra. This mixture-semen-goes through the urethra and out the penis.


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    More than 5 million people in the United States have bipolar disorder.
    People with bipolar disorder typically have mood swings that range from highs called mania, to lows called depression.
    Unless you have severe mania, bipolar disorder can be difficult to diagnose.

Bipolar disorder is a mental illness marked by extreme mood swings from high to low, and from low to high. Highs are periods of mania, while lows are periods of depression. The mood swings may even become mixed, so you might feel elated and depressed at the same time.

Bipolar disorder isn’t a rare diagnosis. A 2005 study found that 2.6 percent of the U.S. population, or more than 5 million people, are living with some form of bipolar disorder. Symptoms tend to appear in a person’s late teens or early adult years, but they can occur in children as well. Women are more likely to receive bipolar diagnoses than men, though the reason for this remains unclear.

Bipolar disorder can be hard to diagnose, but there are warning signs or symptoms that you can look for.


7 signs of mania

Mania can cause other symptoms as well, but seven of the key signs of this phase of bipolar disorder are:

    feeling overly happy or “high” for long periods of time
    having a decreased need for sleep
    talking very fast, often with racing thoughts
    feeling extremely restless or impulsive
    becoming easily distracted
    having overconfidence in your abilities
    engaging in risky behavior, such as having impulsive sex, gambling with life savings, or going on big spending sprees


    
    7 signs of depression

Like mania, depression can cause other symptoms as well, but here are seven of the key signs of depression from bipolar disorder:

    feeling sad or hopeless for long periods of time
    withdrawing from friends and family
    losing interest in activities that you once enjoyed
    having a significant change in appetite
    feeling severe fatigue or lack of energy
    having problems with memory, concentration, and decision making
    thinking about or attempting suicide, or having a preoccupation with death


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 Bipolar I disorder (pronounced "bipolar one" and also known as manic-depressive disorder or manic depression) is a form of mental illness. A person affected by bipolar I disorder has had at least one manic episode in his or her life. A manic episode is a period of abnormally elevated mood and high energy, accompanied by abnormal behavior that disrupts life.

Most people with bipolar I disorder also suffer from episodes of depression. Often, there is a pattern of cycling between mania and depression. This is where the term "manic depression" comes from. In between episodes of mania and depression, many people with bipolar I disorder can live normal lives.


Who Is at Risk for Bipolar I Disorder?

Virtually anyone can develop bipolar I disorder. About 2.5% of the U.S. population suffers from bipolar disorder -- almost 6 million people.

Most people are in their teens or early 20s when symptoms of bipolar disorder first appear. Nearly everyone with bipolar I disorder develops it before age 50. People with an immediate family member who has bipolar are at higher risk.
What Are the Symptoms of Bipolar I Disorder?

During a manic episode in someone with bipolar disorder, elevated mood can manifest itself as either euphoria (feeling "high") or as irritability.

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 Bipolar II disorder (pronounced "bipolar two") is a form of mental illness. Bipolar II is similar to bipolar I disorder, with moods cycling between high and low over time.

However, in bipolar II disorder, the "up" moods never reach full-blown mania. The less-intense elevated moods in bipolar II disorder are called hypomanic episodes, or hypomania.

A person affected by bipolar II disorder has had at least one hypomanic episode in his or her life. Most people with bipolar II disorder suffer more often from episodes of depression. This is where the term "manic depression" comes from.

In between episodes of hypomania and depression, many people with bipolar II disorder typically live normal lives.


Who Is at Risk for Bipolar II Disorder?

Virtually anyone can develop bipolar II disorder. About 2.5% of the U.S. population suffers from some form of bipolar disorder - nearly 6 million people.
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Both women and men wish to have control over when to become parents. Making choices about birth control methods isn’t easy.

There are many types of birth control methods, also referred to as contraception and fertility control, to prevent pregnancy.

Some common options are abstinence, natural family planning or the rhythm method, barrier methods like female or male condoms, hormonal methods like oral contraceptives, implantable devices and emergency contraception, such as the ‘morning after pill’. Those who do not want to have children may opt for a permanent sterilization solution.


1. Queen Anne’s Lace

wild carrot

Another herb that is used as a natural birth control is Queen Anne’s Lace, also known as wild carrot. Mainly the seeds collected from the flower head of this herb work as a contraceptive. The seeds block progesterone synthesis, disrupting implantation, and are most effective as emergency contraception.

Several studies on wild carrot seeds as effective birth control have been encouraging. The extracts of the seeds disrupt the implantation process, and a fertilized egg will find implantation very difficult.

Some people may experience mild side effects like constipation for a few days when using Queen Anne’s Lace. Plus, it may not be suitable for those with a history of kidney or gallstones.

    Take one teaspoon of wild carrot seeds within eight hours of being exposed to sperm and continue once daily for another seven days. Chew the seeds for maximum effectiveness.
    Queen Anne’s Lace can also be used in tincture or tea form.
    

    
2. Blue Cohosh

blue cohosh root

The root of the blue cohosh plant is used as an effective natural birth control. Blue cohosh contains two uterine-contracting substances, one that mimics the hormone oxytocin, and the other a saponin called Caulosaponin. In case you are not using any protective measures, drink some tea made from blue cohosh soon after.

    Add one teaspoon of blue cohosh to one quart of boiling water.
    Steep for five minutes.
    Sip this tea slowly, no more than three times per day (or no more than 300 to 400 mg daily) until your menstrual period starts.

Note: Blue cohosh has some side effects, so it is best to use this herb under the guidance of an herbalist.

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Black eye facts

    A black eye often results from injury to the face or the head, and is caused when blood and other fluids collect in the space around the eye. Swelling and dark discoloration result in a "black eye."
    Most black eyes are relatively minor injuries. Many heal on their own in a few days, but they may signify a more serious injury.
    The most common cause of a black eye is a blow to the eye, nose, or forehead.
    Pain and swelling are the most common signs and symptoms of a black eye.
    Call a doctor if the injured individual has changes in vision, severe pain, or swelling that does not go away, the swelling around the eyes is not related to an injury, there are signs of infection (for example, fever, warmth, redness, pus-like drainage), if the person has behavioral changes, forgetfulness or lethargy, nausea, vomiting and/or dizziness, loss of vision (especially double vision), or an inability to move the eye itself (i.e., unable to look in different directions).
    Home remedies for black eye include rest and ice applied early after the injury help to decrease swelling and pain. Do not use raw meat on an eye injury, this creates potential for infection.
    Avoid a black eye with basic injury prevention. Wear the appropriate protective gear for any athletic or work-related activity.
    Complications include traumatic iritis and uveitis, hyphema, glaucoma, orbital floor fracture (blowout fracture), and retinal detachment.

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A dark spot refers to a hyper-pigmentation of the skin commonly occurring in middle aged women. Dark spots, aka pigmentations, occur when a localized patch of melanin produced accumulates on a specific area on the skin. It can be located on the forehead, face or cheek bone area. Some dark spots could mean serious skin problems and thus you should consult a dermatologist if you become suspicious. 

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Blackheads are small bumps that appear on your skin due to clogged hair follicles. These bumps are called blackheads because the surface looks dark or black. Blackheads are a mild type of acne that usually form on the face, but they can also appear on the following body parts:


back

chest

neck

arms

shoulders

Acne affects nearly 50 million Americans and is the most common skin disorder in the United States, according to the American Academy of Dermatology.

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The cause of a blemish is the clogging of pores with dead skin cells and excessive oil, which results in acne. When this happens in the upper layers of the epidermis, we get whiteheads and blackheads.

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As one of the trickiest, painful and most annoying skin issues, dealing with acne and breakouts is no easy feat. But before you go slathering on all of the spot treatments you can find, it's important to understand how your breakouts form and what can cause them.

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Blisters is very painful to experience blister over the tongue as this does not allow us to have our food in a comfortable way. Even it becomes very hard to get the taste of every food we intake as the pain becomes intolerable. The burning sensation can develop if you have unmindfully eaten up a hot food or a hot drink that imperatively have affected the outer layer of the tongue.

The first thing which you should do is spilt away the food or drink which you have taken inside your mouth unmindfully. Since it is burning of a portion of your body, it is important to go ahead with some simple and common first aid before going for a deeper treatment.

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Stomach bloating is so common these days it’s been called an “epidemic.” With most people’s poor diets, high levels of stress, need for daily medications and exposure to various pollutants, it’s no wonder they’re suffering some sort of bloating more days than not.

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A blood blister is a type of blister that forms when subdermal tissues and blood vessels are damaged without piercing the skin. It consists of a pool of lymph, blood and other body fluids trapped beneath the skin. If punctured, it suppurates a dark fluid. Sometimes the fluids are cut off from the rest of the body and dry up, leaving behind dead cell material inside the blister with a texture like putty. Some blood blisters can be extremely painful due to bruising where the blister occurred.

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A balance disorder is a condition that makes you feel unsteady or dizzy, as if you are moving, spinning, or floating, even though you are standing still or lying down. Balance disorders can be caused by certain health conditions, medications, or a problem in the inner ear or the brain.


Our sense of balance is primarily controlled by a maze-like structure in our inner ear called the labyrinth, which is made of bone and soft tissue. At one end of the labyrinth is an intricate system of loops and pouches called the semicircular canals and the otolithic organs, which help us maintain our balance. At the other end is a snail-shaped organ called the cochlea, which enables us to hear. The medical term for all of the parts of the inner ear involved with balance is the vestibular system

Symptoms

How do I know if I have a balance disorder?

Everyone has a dizzy spell now and then, but the term “dizziness” may mean something different to different people. For some people, dizziness might be a fleeting sensation of spinning, while for others it's intense and lasts a long time. Experts believe that more than four out of 10 Americans will experience an episode of dizziness significant enough to send them to a doctor.


To help you decide whether or not you should seek medical help for a dizzy spell, ask yourself the following questions. If you answer “yes” to any of these questions, talk to your doctor.


    Do I feel unsteady?

    Do I feel as if the room is spinning around me?

    Do I feel as if I'm moving when I know I'm sitting or standing still?

    Do I lose my balance and fall?

    Do I feel as if I'm falling?

    Do I feel “lightheaded” or as if I might faint?

    Do I have blurred vision?

    Do I ever feel disoriented, such as losing my sense of time or where I am?


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Have you ever felt your fingers and toes going numb? Most of us face this problem once in a while, but if this numbness becomes an everyday thing for you, you need help. Blood serves several important functions in the body. It provides oxygen and nutrients to every cell and organ in the body. It balances body temperature, providing warmth to the fingers, nose and toes.

Poor blood circulation is much more unpleasant than it sounds. It occurs when the blood flow becomes restricted to certain parts of the body like heart, legs, hands, toes, feet and fingers. In mild situations, poor blood circulation causes only discomfort. But if not handled in time, it can lead to several other serious health conditions. The health problems caused due to poor blood circulation include varicose veins, kidney issue and other blood restriction difficulties.

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Oncology rehabilitation for breast cancer. Breast cancer and its treatment may affect your physical functioning and energy. ... Exercise may also help you manage treatment-related fatigue, especially during radiation treatments.

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Treatment. Although there is no cure for osteoporosis, there are steps you cantake to prevent, slow or stop its progress. In some cases, you may even be able to improve bone density and reverse the disorder to some degree. Getting enough calcium and vitamin D are essential to bone health.

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A test called a urinalysis can detect whether there is blood in your urine. A urinalysis checks a sample of your urine for different cells, chemicals, and other substances, including blood. Most causes of blood in your urine are not serious, But sometimes red or white blood cells in your urine can mean that you have a medical condition that needs treatment, such as a kidney diseaseurinary tract infection, or liver disease.

Other names: microscopic urine analysis, microscopic examination of urine, urine test, urine analysis, UA

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The Body's Response to Sports Injury. A bruise or 'contusion' is damage to small blood vessels which causes bleeding within the tissues. A muscle strain is a small tear of muscle fibres and a ligament sprain is a small tear of ligament tissue.The Body's Response to Sports Injury. A bruise or 'contusion' is damage to small blood vessels which causes bleeding within the tissues. A muscle strain is a small tear of muscle fibres and a ligament sprain is a small tear of ligament tissue.

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Hyperthyroidism occurs when your thyroid produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. ... An excess of this hormone can cause your body's metabolism to increase, which leads to a rising body temperature. Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism

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UTIs are a key reason we're often told to wipe from front to back after using the bathroom. That's because the urethra -- the tube that transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body -- is located close to the anus. Bacteria from the large intestine, such as E. coli, are in the perfect position to escape the anus and invade the urethra. From there, they can travel up to the bladder, and if the infection isn't treated, continue on to infect the kidneys. Women may be especially prone to UTIs because they have shorter urethras, which allow bacteria quick access to the bladder. Having sex can introduce bacteria into the urinary tract, too.

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Body odour is the unpleasant smell produced by bacteria on the skin that break down the acids in your sweat. The medical term is bromhidrosis. Anyone who has reached puberty can produce body odour, as this is when the apocrine sweat glands develop, which produce the sweat that bacteria can quickly break down.

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Incontinence is a term that describes any accidental or involuntary loss of urine from the bladder (urinary incontinence) or bowel motion, faeces or wind from the bowel (faecal or bowel incontinence).

Incontinence is a widespread condition that ranges in severity from 'just a small leak' to complete loss of bladder or bowel control. In fact, over 4.8 million Australians have bladder or bowel control problems for a variety of reasons. Incontinence can be treated and managed.  In many cases it can also be cured.
Think you might have a problem?

If you experience bladder or bowel problems, but are not sure if you should seek help, try the questionnaire below.
Bladder and bowel questionnaire

    Do you sometimes feel you have not completely emptied your bladder?

    Do you have to rush to use the toilet?

    Are you frequently nervous because you think you might lose control of your bladder or bowel?

    Do you wake up twice or more during the night to go to the toilet?

    Do you sometimes leak before you get to the toilet?

    Do you sometimes leak when you lift something heavy, sneeze, cough or laugh?

    Do you sometimes leak when you exercise or play sport?

    Do you sometimes leak when you change from a seated or lying position to a standing position?

    Do you strain to empty to bowel?

    Do you sometimes soil your underwear?

    Do you plan your daily routine around where the nearest toilet is?

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A boil is a localized infection in the skin that begins as a reddened, tender area. Over time, the area becomes firm, hard, and increasingly tender. Eventually, the center of the boil softens and becomes filled with infection-fighting white blood cells from the bloodstream to eradicate the infection. This collection of white blood cells, bacteria, and proteins is known as pus. Finally, the pus "forms a head," which can be surgically opened or may spontaneously drain out through the surface of the skin. Pus enclosed within tissue is referred to as an abscess. A boil is also referred to as a skin abscess. Boils can occur anywhere on the body, including the trunk, extremities, buttocks, groin, or other areas.

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Bacteria are a large group of one-celled organisms. They can live on different places in the body. Some types of bacteria are harmless or even beneficial. Others can cause infections and disease. A bacteria culture test can help find harmful bacteria in your body. During a bacteria culture test, a sample will be taken from your blood, urine, skin, or other part of your body. The type of sample depends on the location of the suspected infection. The cells in your sample will be taken to a lab and put in a special environment in a lab to encourage cell growth. Results are often available within a few days. But some types of bacteria grow slowly, and it may take several days or longer.

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A bilirubin blood test measures the levels of bilirubin in your blood. Bilirubin is a yellowish substance made during the body's normal process of breaking down red blood cells. Bilirubin is found in bile, a fluid in your liver that helps you digest food. If your liver is healthy, it will remove most of the bilirubin from your body. If your liver is damaged, bilirubin can leak out of your liver and into your blood. When too much bilirubin gets into the bloodstream, it can cause jaundice, a condition that causes your skin and eyes to turn yellow. Signs of jaundice, along with a bilirubin blood test, can help your health care provider find out if you have liver disease.

Other names: Total serum bilirubin, TSB

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A bilirubin in urine test measures the levels of bilirubin in your urine. Bilirubin is a yellowish substance made during the body's normal process of breaking down red blood cells. Bilirubin is found in bile, a fluid in your liver that helps you digest food. If your liver is healthy, it will remove most of the bilirubin from your body. If your liver is damaged, bilirubin can leak into the blood and urine. Bilirubin in urine may be a sign of liver disease.

Other names: urine test, urine analysis, UA, chemical urinalysis, direct bilirubin

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A blood differential test measures the amount of each type of white blood cell (WBC) that you have in your body. White blood cells (leukocytes) are part of your immune system, a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect you from infection. There are five different types of white blood cells:

  • Neutrophils are the most common type of white blood cell. These cells travel to the site of an infection and release substances called enzymes to fight off invading viruses or bacteria.
  • Lymphocytes. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B cells and T cells. B cells fight off invading viruses, bacteria, or toxins. T cells target and destroy the body's own cells that have been infected by viruses or cancer cells.
  • Monocytes remove foreign material, remove dead cells, and boost the body's immune response.
  • Eosinophils fight infection, inflammation, and allergic reactions. They also defend the body against parasites and bacteria.
  • Basophils release enzymes to help control allergic reactions and asthma attacks.

However, your test results may have more than five numbers. For example, the lab may list the results as counts as well as percentages.

Other names for a blood differential test: Complete blood count (CBC) with differential, Differential, White blood cell differential count, Leukocyte differential count.

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A blood glucose test measures the glucose levels in your blood. Glucose is a type of sugar. It is your body's main source of energy. A hormone called insulin helps move glucose from your bloodstream into your cells. Too much or too little glucose in the blood can be a sign of a serious medical condition. High blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) may be a sign of diabetes, a disorder that can cause heart diseaseblindnesskidney failure and other complications. Low blood glucose levels (hypoglycemia) can also lead to major health problems, including brain damage, if not treated.

Other names: blood sugar, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting blood glucose (FBG), glucose challenge test, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)

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A boil is often caused by an infection within a hair follicle or oil gland. They're usually caused by staph bacteria, which are naturally present on your skin. Boils can develop anywhere on your body, but are commonly found in places on the body where there is friction.A boil is often caused by an infection within a hair follicle or oil gland. They're usually caused by staph bacteria, which are naturally present on your skin. Boils can develop anywhere on your body, but are commonly found in places on the body where there is friction.

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A blood smear is a sample of blood that's tested on a specially treated slide. For a blood smear test, a laboratory professional examines the slide under a microscope and looks at the size, shape, and number of different types of blood cells. These include:

  • Red blood cells, which carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body
  • White blood cells, which fight infection
  • Platelets, which help your blood to clot

Many blood tests use computers to analyze results. For a blood smear, the lab professional looks for blood cell problems that may not be seen on a computer analysis.

Other names: peripheral smear, peripheral blood film, smear, blood film, manual differential, differential slide, blood cell morphology, blood smear analysis

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A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen test, can provide important information about your kidney function. The main job of your kidneys is to remove waste and extra fluid from your body. If you have kidney disease, this waste material can build up in your blood and may lead to serious health problems, including high blood pressureanemia, and heart disease.

The test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your blood. Urea nitrogen is one of the waste products removed from your blood by your kidneys. Higher than normal BUN levels may be a sign that your kidneys aren't working efficiently.

People with early kidney disease may not have any symptoms. A BUN test can help uncover kidney problems at an early stage when treatment can be more effective.

Other names for a BUN test: Urea nitrogen test, serum BUN

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the spine. They’re responsible for filtering out of the blood waste products, excess water, and other impurities. These important organs also control the pH, salt levels, and potassium levels in the body. The kidneys even produce hormones that manage red blood cell production and regulate blood pressure.

A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is used to determine how well your kidneys are working. It does this by measuring the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood. Urea nitrogen is a waste product that’s created in the liver when the body breaks down proteins. Normally, the kidneys filter out this waste, and urinating removes it from the body.

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A bone spur (osteophyte) is a bony growth formed on normal bone. Most people think of something sharp when they think of a "spur," but a bone spur is just extra bone. It's usually smooth, but it can cause wear and tear or pain if it presses or rubs on other bones or soft tissues such as ligaments, tendons, or nerves in the body. Common places for bone spurs include the spine, shoulders, hands, hips, knees, and feet.

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Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant (cancer) if the cells can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. Breast cancer occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get breast cancer, too.

Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and can spread to other areas. To learn more about cancer and how all cancers start and spread, see Cancer Basics.

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Breast enlargement is the enlargement of the breasts. It may occur naturally as in mammoplasia or may occur artificially through active intervention. Many women regard their breasts, which are female secondary sex characteristics, as important to their sexual attractiveness, as a sign of femininity that is important to their sense of self. Due to this, when a woman considers her breasts deficient in some respect, she might choose to engage in some activity intended to enhance them

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A breast infection, also known as mastitis, is an infection that occurs within the tissue of the breast. Breast infections are most common among women who are breastfeeding, when bacteria from a baby's mouth enters and infects the breast. This is also known as lactation mastitis.A breast infection, also known as mastitis, is an infection that occurs within the tissue of the breast. Breast infections are most common among women who are breastfeeding, when bacteria from a baby's mouth enters and infects the breast. This is also known as lactation mastitis.

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Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child. Milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods; older infants and toddlers may continue to be breastfed, either exclusively or in combination with other foods from around six months of age when solid foods may be introduced.

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A blood donation occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions and/or made into biopharmaceutical medications by a process called fractionation (separation of whole-blood components). Donation may be of whole blood (WB), or of specific components directly (the latter called apheresis). Blood banks often participate in the collection process as well as the procedures that follow it.

Today in the developed world, most blood donors are unpaid volunteers who donate blood for a community supply. In poorer countries, established supplies are limited and donors usually give blood when family or friends need a transfusion (directed donation). Many donors donate as an act of charity, but in countries that allow paid donation some donors are paid, and in some cases there are incentives other than money such as paid time off from work. Donors can also have blood drawn for their own future use (autologous donation). Donating is relatively safe, but some donors have bruising where the needle is inserted or may feel faint.

Potential donors are evaluated for anything that might make their blood unsafe to use. The screening includes testing for diseases that can be transmitted by a blood transfusion, including HIV and viral hepatitis. The donor must also answer questions about medical history and take a short physical examination to make sure the donation is not hazardous to his or her health. How often a donor can donate varies from days to months based on what component they donate and the laws of the country where the donation takes place. For example, in the United States, donors must wait eight weeks (56 days) between whole blood donations but only seven days between plateletpheresis donations and twice per seven-day period in plasmapheresis.

The amount of blood drawn and the methods vary. The collection can be done manually or with automated equipment that takes only specific components of the blood. Most of the components of blood used for transfusions have a short shelf life, and maintaining a constant supply is a persistent problem. This has led to some increased interest in autotransfusion, whereby a patient's blood is salvaged during surgery for continuous reinfusion—or alternatively, is "self-donated" prior to when it will be needed. (Generally, the notion of "donation" does not refer to giving to one's self, though in this context it has become somewhat acceptably idiomatic.)

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As a B Positive donor, you are very important to maintaining the blood supply in our community. B+ is the third most common occurring blood type. Your regular and frequent blood donations are especially valued, and many in our area will be given a fighting chance at life because of your generous gift. Annually, more than 120,000 units of blood, platelets and plasma are required to meet the needs of the hospitals we serve, and your blood type is crucial to maintaining an adequate supply.  We are grateful to you for so willingly giving the “gift of life”, and through your continued commitment, we are able to maintain our heritage of service to those in need. 1 in 12 people have B+ blood (approximately 8.5% of the population).


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As a B Negative blood donor, you are unique due to the rarity of your blood. Because your blood is rare, it is important to maintain sufficient supplies for our community and local patients. In fact, only 1 in 67 people have B- blood (approximately 1.5% of the population).Your regular and frequent blood donations are especially valued, and many in our area will be given a fighting chance at life because of your generous gift.


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Breast pain is any discomfort, tenderness, or pain in the breast or underarm region, and it may occur for a number of reasons. Generally, breast pain is not a sign of breast cancer.Breast pain is any discomfort, tenderness, or pain in the breast or underarm region, and it may occur for a number of reasons. Generally, breast pain is not a sign of breast cancer.

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Breasts develop from embryological tissues, and the high estrogen level in females during puberty causes breasts to start growing bigger.

Breasts are mammary glands composed of layers of different types of tissue, including adipose, glandular and connective tissues. As these tissues have hormone receptors, there is often fluctuation in breast sizes and volumes based on hormonal changes in the body.

As breasts are considered a sign of femininity and beauty, women want their breasts to be perfectly shaped and sized. However, at times the breasts become larger in size, which can be due to several factors including genetics, obesity, pregnancy, breastfeeding, hormonal changes in the body and side effects of certain drugs.

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Urinary incontinence — the loss of bladder control — is a common and often embarrassing problem. The severity ranges from occasionally leaking urine when you cough or sneeze to having an urge to urinate that's so sudden and strong you don't get to a toilet in time.


Though it occurs more often as people get older, urinary incontinence isn't an inevitable consequence of aging. If urinary incontinence affects your daily activities, don't hesitate to see your doctor. For most people, simple lifestyle changes or medical treatment can ease discomfort or stop urinary incontinence

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Onychoschizia or splitting of the fingernails is a common problem seen by dermatologists. The term onychoschizia includes splitting, brittle, soft or thin nails. Onychoschizia is more common in women. Only very rarely are internal disease or vitamin deficiencies the reason (iron deficiency is the most common).

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The brain is the body organ composed of nerve cells and supportive tissues like glial cells and meninges – there are three major parts – they control your activity like breathing (brain stem), activity like moving muscles to walk (cerebellum) and your senses like sight and our memory, emotions, thinking and personality (cerebrum).

Primary brain tumors can be either malignant (contain cancer cells) or benign (do not contain cancer cells). A primary brain tumor is a tumor which begins in the brain tissue. If a cancerous tumor starts elsewhere in the body, it can spread cancer cells, which grow in the brain. These type of tumors are called secondary or metastatic brain tumors.

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Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers, affecting approximately 68,000 adults in the United States each year. Bladder cancer occurs in men more frequently than it does in women and usually affects older adults, though it can happen at any age.


Bladder cancer most often begins in the cells (urothelial cells) that line the inside of your bladder — the hollow, muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine. Although it's most common in the bladder, this same type of cancer can occur in other parts of the urinary tract drainage system.


About seven out of every 10 bladder cancers diagnosed start out at an early stage — when bladder cancer is highly treatable. However, even early-stage bladder cancer may recur in the bladder. For this reason, people with bladder cancer typically need follow-up tests for years after treatment to look for bladder cancer that recurs or advances to a higher stage.

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Age spots are the result of an excess production of melanin, or skin pigment. Doctors don't always know why age spots develop. Skin aging, sun exposure, or other forms of ultraviolet (UV) light exposure, such as tanning beds, are all possible causes.

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Bruises often induce pain, but small bruises are not normally dangerous alone. Sometimes bruises can be serious, leading to other more life-threatening forms of hematoma, such as when associated with serious injuries, including fractures and more severe internal bleeding. The likelihood and severity of bruising depends on many factors, including type and healthiness of affected tissues. Minor bruises may be easily recognized in people with light skin color by characteristic blue or purple appearance (idiomatically described as "black and blue") in the days following the injury.

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 Burns are a serious public health problem. A burn is defined as an injury to the skin or other organic tissue primarily caused by heat or due to radiation, radioactivity, electricity, friction or contact with chemicals.

Heat burns occur when some or all of the different layers of cells in the skin are destroyed by a hot liquid (scald), a hot solid (contact burn) or a flame (flame burn). Skin injuries due to ultraviolet radiation, radioactivity, electricity or chemicals, as well as respiratory damage resulting from smoke inhalation, are also considered as burns.

According to WHO estimates about 265 000 deaths occur each year from fires alone globally, with more deaths from scalds, electrical burns, and other forms of burns for which data are not available. The majority of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, with almost half occur in the WHO South-East Asia Region.

In India around 7 million people suffer from burn injuries each year with 1.4 lakh deaths and 2.4 lakh people suffer with disability. Burn death rates have been decreasing in high income countries.

Females and males show similar rates for burns in contrast to other injury patterns where rates of injury are higher in males than females. The higher risk for females is associated with open fire cooking, or unsafe cook stoves, loose clothing. Self-directed or interpersonal violence is also a factor for burn injuries.

Along with adult females, children are also vulnerable to burns. Out of 5 burn victims 4 are women and children. Burns are the fifth most common cause of non-fatal childhood injuries and 11th leading cause of death of children aged 1-9 years. Among all people globally, infants have the highest death rates from burns.

Burns are also a leading cause of morbidity; millions who survive suffer from lifelong disability and disfigurements with resulting emotional trauma and stigma.

Burns are preventable. Increased efforts in prevention and care would lead to significant reduction in burn-related morbidity, mortality and disability.

The National Programme for Prevention, Management and Rehabilitation of Burn Injuries (NPPMRBI) is an initiative by the Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India to strengthen the preventive, curative and rehabilitative services for burn victims.

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A burning sensation in your feet may be caused by nerve damage in the legs, also called neuropathy. Although many medical conditions can cause burning feet, diabetes is the most common. Most burning feet treatments focus on preventing further nerve damage and reducing pain.

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A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. Most burns are due to heat from hot liquids, solids, or fire. While rates are similar for males and females the underlying causes often differ. Among women in some areas, risk is related to use of open cooking fires or unsafe cook stoves. Amongong men, risk is related to the work environments. Alcoholism and smoking are other risk factors. Burns can also occur as a result of self harm or violence between people.

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Botulism (or botulism poisoning) is a rare but very serious illness that transmits through food, contact with contaminated soil, or through an open wound. Without early treatment, botulism can lead to paralysis, breathing difficulties, and death.

There are three main types of botulism:

    infant botulism
    foodborne botulism
    wound botulism

Botulism poisoning is due to a toxin produced by a type of bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. Although very common, these bacteria can only thrive in conditions where there’s no oxygen. Certain food sources, such as home-canned foods, provide a potent breeding ground.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 145 cases of botulism are reported every year in the United States. About 3 to 5 percent of those with botulism poisoning die.

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You can do a lot to take care of yourself and give your body what it needs. Still, as you get older, your body changes in ways you can’t always control. For most men, one of those changes is that the prostate gets bigger.


It’s a natural part of aging, but at some point, it can lead to a condition called BPH, or benign prostatic hyperplasia.


Your prostate surrounds part of your urethra, the tube that carries urine and semen out of your penis. When you have BPH, your prostate is larger than usual, which squeezes the urethra. This can cause a weak stream when you pee and cause you to wake up a lot at night to go to the bathroom.


BPH isn’t prostate cancer and doesn’t make you more likely to get it.


It’s a common condition, especially in older men, and there are a lot of treatments for it, from lifestyle changes to surgery. Your doctor can help you choose the best care based on your age, health, and how the condition affects you.

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A bone density test determines if you have osteoporosis — a disorder characterized by bones that are more fragile and more likely to break.

In the past, osteoporosis would be suspected only after you broke a bone. By that time, however, your bones could be quite weak. A bone density test enhances the accuracy of calculating your risk of breaking bones.

A bone density test uses X-rays to measure how many grams of calcium and other bone minerals are packed into a segment of bone. The bones that are most commonly tested are in the spine, hip and sometimes the forearm.

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Bedwetting, or nocturnal enuresis, refers to the unintentional passage of urine during sleep. Enuresis is the medical term for wetting, whether in the clothing during the day or in bed at night. Another name for enuresis is urinary incontinence.
For infants and young children, urination is involuntary. Wetting is normal for them. Most children achieve some degree of bladder control by 4 years of age. Daytime control is usually achieved first, while nighttime control comes later.

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Chances are we have all crossed our legs a time or two in hopes of making it to the closest restroom in time. But there's a big difference between having to go, and always feeling like you have to go. For those who live with bladder spasms, that feeling is a painful reality that can lead to embarrassing wetting accidents and an unwanted shift in lifestyle. However, there are a variety of treatment options available to manage the symptoms. Here's what you need to know about bladder spasms, from the causes to what you can do to ease the pain.


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