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The pulmonary veins are the four blood vessels (two on each side) that return oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium (left upper chamber) of the heart. Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a rare congenital malformation in which all four pulmonary veins do not connect normally to the left atrium. Instead the four pulmonary veins drain abnormally to the right atrium (right upper chamber) by way of an abnormal (anomalous) connection.

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Tapeworms are long, segmented worms of the class Cestoda, which comprise 1 of 3 classes of parasitic worms (worms that require a host within which to mature). The other classes are Nematoda and Trematoda. These worms lack an intestinal tract and instead can absorb nutrients through their integument.The adult consists of a head (scolex), where the worms attach to the mucosa of the intestine; a neck; and a segmented body that contains both male gonads and female gonads (proglottids).

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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a weakening of the left ventricle, the heart's main pumping chamber, usually as the result of severe emotional or physical stress, such as a sudden illness, the loss of a loved one, a serious accident, or a natural disaster such as an earthquake. (For additional examples, see "Stressors associated with takotsubo cardiomyopathy.") That's why the condition is also called stress-induced cardiomyopathy, or broken-heart syndrome. The main symptoms are chest pain and shortness of breath.

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The features of seizures beginning in the temporal lobe can be extremely varied, but certain patterns are common. There may be a mixture of different feelings, emotions, thoughts, and experiences, which may be familiar or completely foreign. In some cases, a series of old memories resurfaces. In others, the person may feel as if everything – including home and family – appears strange. Hallucinations of voices, music, people, smells, or tastes may occur. These features are called “auras” or “warnings.” They may last for just a few seconds or may continue as long as a minute or two.Experiences during temporal lobe seizures vary in intensity and quality. Sometimes the seizures are so mild that the person barely notices. In other cases, the person may be consumed with fright, intellectual fascination, or even pleasure.The experiences and sensations that accompany these seizures are often impossible to describe, even for the most eloquent adult. And of course it is even more difficult to get an accurate picture of what people are feeling.

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The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is the joint that connects your mandible (lower jaw) to your skull. The joint can be found on both sides of your head in front of your ears. It allows your jaw to open and close, enabling you to speak and eat.This abbreviation is also used to refer to a group of health problems related to your jaw. These disorders can cause tenderness at the joint, facial pain, and difficulty moving the joint. According to the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, as many as 10 million Americans suffer from TMJ. TMJ is more common among women than men. These disorders are treatable, but there are many different possible causes. This can make diagnosis difficult.Keep reading to learn more about TMJ. You should discuss any concerns with your doctor.

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The cause of the majority of cases is the bell clapper deformity, an anatomic abnormality that is present in some males. This anatomical condition allows the spermatic cord to twist more easily, resulting in compromise of the blood supply to the testicle. This can occur spontaneously or may be associated with trauma. There is no way to detect this deformity. In significant number of men who have this anatomical abnormality will have it in both testicles.

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Tetanus is a serious bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscles throughout the body to tighten. It’s also called lockjaw because the infection often causes muscle contractions in the jaw and neck. However, it can eventually spread to other parts of the body.Tetanus infection can be life-threatening without treatment. Approximately 10 to 20 percent of tetanus infections are fatal, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Tetanus is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment in a hospital. Fortunately, tetanus is preventable through the use of a vaccine. However, this vaccine does not last forever. Tetanus booster shots are needed every 10 years to ensure immunity.Because of the easy availability of the vaccine, tetanus is rare in the United States. It’s more common in other countries that don’t yet have strong immunization programs.

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Tetralogy of Fallot (teh-TRAL-uh-jee of fuh-LOW) is a rare condition caused by a combination of four heart defects that are present at birth (congenital).These defects, which affect the structure of the heart, cause oxygen-poor blood to flow out of the heart and to the rest of the body. Infants and children with tetralogy of Fallot usually have blue-tinged skin because their blood doesn't carry enough oxygen.Tetralogy of Fallot is often diagnosed during infancy or soon after. However, tetralogy of Fallot might not be detected until later in life in some adults, depending on the severity of the defects and symptoms.With early diagnosis followed by appropriate surgical treatment, most children and adults who have tetralogy of Fallot live relatively normal lives, though they'll need regular medical care throughout life and might have restrictions on exercise

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The term tetraplegia refers to a condition that causes total or partial paralysis in all four limbs, including the whole of the body. Tetraplegia can be caused by injury or illness, both  of which can damage the spinal cord permanently between the levels of  C1 - 7. The term tetraplegic refers to an individual who suffers from tetraplegia. Quadriplegic is the American terminology for tetraplegic.

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Transient global amnesia is a sudden, temporary episode of memory loss that can't be attributed to a more common neurological condition, such as epilepsy or stroke.During an episode of transient global amnesia, your recall of recent events simply vanishes, so you can't remember where you are or how you got there. In addition, you may not remember anything about what's happening in the here and now. Consequently, you may keep repeating the same questions because you don't remember the answers you've just been given. You may also draw a blank when asked to remember things that happened a day, a month or even a year ago.With transient global amnesia, you do remember who you are, and recognize the people you know well. But that doesn't make your memory loss less disturbing.Fortunately, transient global amnesia is rare, seemingly harmless and unlikely to happen again. Episodes are usually short-lived, and afterward your memory is fine.

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Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen.The disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, which leads to anemia. Anemia is a condition in which your body doesn’t have enough normal, healthy red blood cells.Thalassemia is inherited, meaning that at least one of your parents must be a carrier of the disease. It’s caused by either a genetic mutation or a deletion of certain key gene fragments.Thalassemia minor is a less serious form of the disorder. There are two main forms of thalassemia that are more serious. In alpha thalassemia, at least one of the alpha globin genes has a mutation or abnormality. In beta thalassemia, the beta globin genes are affected.Each of these forms of thalassemia has different subtypes. The exact form you have will affect the severity of your symptoms and your outlook.

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A thoracic aortic aneurysm is a weakened area in the upper part of the aorta. The aorta is the major blood vessel that feeds blood to the body.A thoracic aortic aneurysm may also be called thoracic aneurysm and aortic dissection (TAAD) because an aneurysm can lead to a tear in the artery wall (dissection) that can cause life-threatening bleeding. Small and slow-growing thoracic aortic aneurysms may not ever rupture, but large, fast-growing aneurysms may rupture.Depending on the size and growth rate of your thoracic aortic aneurysm, treatment may vary from watchful waiting to emergency surgery. Ideally, surgery for a thoracic aortic aneurysm can be planned if necessary.

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The term ‘thoracic outlet syndrome’ describes compression of the neurovascular structures as they exit through the thoracic outlet (cervicothoracobrachial region). The thoracic outlet is marked by the anterior scalene muscle anteriorly, the middle scalene posteriorly, and the first rib inferiorly. This condition has emerged as one of the most controversial topics in musculoskeletal medicine and rehabilitation [2]. This controversy extends to almost every aspect of the pathology including the definition, incidence, pathoanatomical contributions, diagnosis, and treatment.The term ‘TOS’ does not specify the structure being compressed. Investigators namely identify two main categories of TOS: the vascular form (arterial or venous), which raises few diagnostic problems, and the neurological form, which occurs in more than 95-99% of all cases of TOS. Therefore the syndrome should be differentiated by using the terms arterial TOS (ATOS), venous TOS (VTOS) or neurogenic 

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Throat cancer generally refers to cancers that start in the pharynx or larynx (voice box), but can also refer to cancers that start in the oesophagus (food pipe) or thyroid. Some cancers which begin in the throat area, as well as the tongue, salivary glands, sinuses, nose or ear, are classified as head and neck cancers. The two main types of cancer that are commonly referred to as throat cancers are pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers – cancer of the pharynx and the larynx.


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Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), an inflammatory vasculopathy also known as Buerger disease, is characterized by an inflammatory endarteritis that causes a prothrombotic state and subsequent vaso-occlusive phenomena. The inflammatory process is initiated within the tunica intima. It characteristically affects small and medium-sized arteries as well as veins of the upper and lower extremities. The condition is strongly associated with heavy tobacco use, and disease progression is closely linked to continued use. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.)Patients often present with moderate-to-severe claudication that can quickly progress to critical limb ischemia featuring rest pain or tissue loss. Features of acute limb ischemia (eg, pain, paresthesia, palor, mottling, poikilothermia, paresis, and pulselessness) are common signs and symptoms encountered in the emergency setting. [1, 2, 3, 4] (See Presentation.)Pharmacologic therapy is generally ineffective; abstinence from tobacco is the only measure known to prevent disease progression. (See Treatment.) Given the arteritis of the small and medium-sized vessels, surgical or endovascular revascularization may not be possible, because of the absence of a distal target for revascularization. As the disease evolves, amputation may be the only viable option.


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Thrombocytopenia is a condition in which you have a low blood platelet count. Platelets (thrombocytes) are colorless blood cells that help blood clot. Platelets stop bleeding by clumping and forming plugs in blood vessel injuries.Thrombocytopenia often occurs as a result of a separate disorder, such as leukemia or an immune system problem. Or it can be a side effect of taking certain medications. It affects both children and adults.Thrombocytopenia may be mild and cause few signs or symptoms. In rare cases, the number of platelets may be so low that dangerous internal bleeding occurs. Treatment options are available.

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Thrombocytosis is a disorder in which your body produces too many platelets (thrombocytes), which play an important role in blood clotting. The disorder is called reactive thrombocytosis or secondary thrombocythemia when it's caused by an underlying condition, such as an infection.Thrombocytosis (throm-boe-sie-TOE-sis) may also, less commonly, be caused by a blood and bone marrow disease. When caused by a bone marrow disorder, thrombocytosis is called autonomous, primary or essential thrombocytosis, or essential thrombocythemia.Your doctor may detect thrombocytosis in routine blood test results that show a high platelet level. If your blood test indicates thrombocytosis, it's important to determine whether it's reactive thrombocytosis or if you have essential thrombocythemia, which is more likely to cause blood clots.


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Thrombophlebitis is inflammation of a vein caused by a blood clot. It typically occurs in the legs. A blood clot is a solid formation of blood cells that clump together. Blood clots can interfere with normal blood flow throughout your body, and are considered dangerous. Thrombophlebitis can occur in veins near the surface of your skin or deeper, down in between your muscle layers.


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A joint is where bones connect and move.  Arthritis is thinning of the cartilage, which is the smooth covering of the joint.  The body reacts to loss of the joint surface by forming bone spurs (osteophytes) Thumb arthritis is a genetic predisposition: like graying and thinning of the hair, it comes with age and it shows up earlier in some families.  Unlike thinning of the hair, women tend to get thumb arthritis sooner than men do.


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A thunderclap headache is a severe headache that starts suddenly. This type of headache pain doesn’t gradually build in intensity. Instead, it’s an intense and very painful headache as soon as it starts. In fact, it’s frequently described as the worse headache of one’s life.A thunderclap headache may be a sign of a condition that can be life-threatening. It may be connected to some sort of bleeding in your brain. It’s important that you seek medical attention if you think you may be experiencing one. It may also have a benign cause that’s not life-threatening but should still be checked immediately to find out what’s causing it.


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Tinea capitis causes the gradual appearance of round patches of dry scale, alopecia, or both. T. tonsurans infection causes black dot ringworm, in which hair shafts break at the scalp surface; M. audouinii infection causes gray patch ringworm, in which hair shafts break above the surface, leaving short stubs. Tinea capitis less commonly manifests as diffuse scaling, like dandruff, or in a diffuse pustular pattern.


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Tinea Barbae which is common term known as Beard Fungus or Barber's Itch is a fungal infection of the skin in the area of the face where there is growth of beard meaning that it affects mainly the bottom area of the face and some part of the neck. As the name suggest, Tinea Barbae is solely limited to males and does not affect females in any way. It is usually found in adolescents or young adults. Tinea Barbae has now become quite rare due to the modern hygiene practices which prevent any fungal infections especially in the facial area.


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Tinea pedis is a common superficial fungal (dermatophyte) skin infection of the feet. It may present in several clinical varieties: intertriginous, moccasin, vesicobullous, or a combination of these. It is often referred to as “Athlete’s Foot”.  Tinea pedis may be accompanied by dermatophyte infection of other parts of the body including groin, hands or nails. It is estimated to affect about 15% of the population at large, being more common in closed communities such army barracks and boarding schools, in warm weather, among those frequenting swimming pools, and when the feet are occluded with nonporous shoes.  Tinea pedis is estimated to be present in about 40% of all patients who attend clinics for any medical concern1. Those patients with more severe symptoms seek medical help and often have concomitant fungal infection of the toenails 2, 3. There are many undiagnosed cases, many of which may be asymptomatic and unsuspecting of having tinea pedis 2  and be a possible source of infection for others. Chronic infection is common in patients with concomitant diabetes, atopy, and immunosuppression. In an increasingly aging population and with the increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients, tinea is emerging as an important and a significantly prevalent infection.


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There are two parts to your tongue: the oral tongue and the base of the tongue. Cancer can develop in either part.The oral tongue is the part you see when you poke your tongue out at someone. This is the front two thirds of your tongue. Cancers that develop in this part of the tongue come under a group of cancers called mouth (oral) cancer.The base of the tongue is the back third of the tongue. This part is very near your throat (pharynx). Cancers that develop in this part are called oropharyngeal cancers (pronounced oar-o-farin-gee-al

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Tonsils come in a pair located at the back of your throat in an area known as the oropharynx. Their role is to help fight infection. Cancer can develop in your tonsils. Tonsil cancer is classified as head and neck cancer, throat cancer, and oropharynx cancer.Tonsil cancer can develop even in people who’ve had their tonsils removed because a small piece of tonsil tissue may be left behind.

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Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder affecting cellular differentiation, proliferation, and migration early in development, resulting in a variety of hamartomatous lesions that may affect virtually every organ system of the body.The best-known cutaneous manifestation of TSC is adenoma sebaceum, which often does not appear until late childhood or early adolescence. This lesion is an angiofibroma (ie, cutaneous hamartoma) and is not related to excessive sebum or acne. Flat, reddish macular lesions develop first, which can be mistaken for freckles early on. See the image below.

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Turner syndrome is a chromosomal condition that affects development in females. The most common feature of Turner syndrome is short stature, which becomes evident by about age 5. An early loss of ovarian function (ovarian hypofunction or premature ovarian failure) is also very common. The ovaries develop normally at first, but egg cells (oocytes) usually die prematurely and most ovarian tissue degenerates before birth. Many affected girls do not undergo puberty unless they receive hormone therapy, and most are unable to conceive (infertile). A small percentage of females with Turner syndrome retain normal ovarian function through young adulthood.About 30 percent of females with Turner syndrome have extra folds of skin on the neck (webbed neck), a low hairline at the back of the neck, puffiness or swelling (lymphedema) of the hands and feet, skeletal abnormalities, or kidney problems. One third to one half of individuals with Turner syndrome are born with a heart defect, such as a narrowing of the large artery leaving the heart (coarctation of the aorta) or abnormalities of the valve that connects the aorta with the heart (the aortic valve). Complications associated with these heart defects can be life-threatening.Most girls and women with Turner syndrome have normal intelligence. Developmental delays, nonverbal learning disabilities, and behavioral problems are possible, although these characteristics vary among affected individuals.


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The term trisomy is used to describe the presence of three chromosomes, rather than the usual matched pair of chromosomes. For example, if a baby is born with three #21 chromosomes, rather than the usual pair, then the baby would be said to have "trisomy 21." Trisomy 21 is also known as Down syndrome. Other examples of trisomy include syndromes like trisomy 18 and trisomy 13. Again, trisomy 18 or trisomy 13 simply means the child has three copies of the #18 chromosome (or of the #13 chromosome) present in each cell of the body, rather than the usual pair.

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Trisomy X is a disorder that affects females and is characterized by the presence of an additional X chromosome. Normally, females have two X chromosomes; however, females with trisomy X carry three X chromosomes in the nuclei of body cells. There are specific physical features (phenotype) associated with this chromosomal disorder. Common symptoms that can potentially occur include language-based learning disabilities, developmental dyspraxia, tall stature, low muscle tone (hypotonia), and abnormal bending or curving of the pinkies toward the ring fingers (clinodactyly). Trisomy X occurs randomly as a result from errors during the division of reproductive cells in one of the parents. This disorder occurs in one in 900 to 1,000 live births.

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Tricuspid valve disease affects the valve that connects the upper and lower chambers (atrium and ventricle) on the right side of your heart.Aurora Health Care’s teams are the region’s leaders in diagnosing and treating heart valve diseases. We offer customized treatment using the most advanced, minimally invasive procedures, whether the condition is congenital (a birth defect) or develops later in life.

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Trigger finger is a painful condition that causes the fingers or thumb to catch or lock when bent. In the thumb its called trigger thumb.Trigger finger happens when tendons in the finger or thumb become inflamed. Tendons are tough bands of tissue that connect muscles and bones. Together, the tendons and muscles in the hands and arms bend and straighten the fingers and thumbs.A tendon usually glides easily through the tissue that covers it (called a sheath) because of a lubricating membrane surrounding the joint called the synovium. Sometimes a tendon may become inflamed and swollen. Prolonged irritation of the tendon sheath can produce scarring and thickening that impede the tendon's motion. When this happens, bending the finger or thumb can pull the inflamed tendon through a narrowed tendon sheath, making it snap or pop.

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richinosis is a disease caused by parasitic roundworms (nematodes) that can infect and damage body tissues. Nematodes are a major division of the helminth family of parasitic worms (for example, Trichinella spiralis). When ingested, these parasitic worms can pass through the intestinal tract to invade other tissues, such as muscle, where they persist. Trichinosis is also termed trichinellosis, trichiniasis, or trichinelliasis. Trichinosis is not to be confused with trichomoniasis, a sexually 

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Trichomoniasis (also called trich) is a common, curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a parasitic protozoa called Trichomonas vaginalis. More than one million new cases occur each year in the U.S. Trichomoniasis may cause symptoms in women, but most men do not have symptoms. You may need to talk to your healthcare provider about whether or not you should be tested. If you have trichomoniasis, you are more likely to contract HIV if you are exposed–so getting tested and treated is important

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Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh), also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of your body, despite trying to stop.Hair pulling from the scalp often leaves patchy bald spots, which causes significant distress and can interfere with social or work functioning. People with trichotillomania may go to great lengths to disguise the loss of hair.For some people, trichotillomania may be mild and generally manageable. For others, the compulsive urge to pull hair is overwhelming. Some treatment options have helped many people reduce their hair pulling or stop entirely.

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Tricuspid atresia is a condition seen in newborns in which they’re born without an important part of the heart called “the tricuspid valve.” This valve plays a part in the heart’s essential function, which is to pump blood between the lungs and body.In some newborns, the tricuspid valve is missing or hasn’t properly developed. Tricuspid atresia is a rare heart disorder that’s congenital, or present at birth. It’s a serious condition, and it can be life-threatening.

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Transposition of the great arteries is a serious but rare heart defect present at birth (congenital), in which the two main arteries leaving the heart are reversed (transposed). The condition is also called dextro-transposition of the great arteries. A rarer type of this condition is called levo-transposition of the great arteries.Transposition of the great arteries changes the way blood circulates through the body, leaving a shortage of oxygen in blood flowing from the heart to the rest of the body. Without an adequate supply of oxygen-rich blood, the body can't function properly and your child faces serious complications or death without treatment.Transposition of the great arteries is usually detected either prenatally or within the first hours to weeks of life.Corrective surgery soon after birth is the usual treatment for transposition of the great arteries. Having a baby with transposition of the great arteries can be alarming, but with proper treatment, the outlook is promising

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Transverse myelitis is an inflammation of the spinal cord, a major part of the central nervous system.  The spinal cord carries nerve signals to and from the brain through nerves that extend from each side of the spinal cord and connect to nerves elsewhere in the body.  The term myelitis refers to inflammation of the spinal cord; transverse refers to the pattern of changes in sensation—there is often a band-like sensation across the trunk of the body, with sensory changes below.Causes of transverse myelitis include infections, immune system disorders, and other disorders that may damage or destroy myelin, the fatty white insulating substance that covers nerve cell fibers.  Inflammation within the spinal cord interrupts communications between nerve fibers in the spinal cord and the rest of the body, affecting sensation and nerve signaling below the injury.  Symptoms include pain, sensory problems, weakness in the legs and possibly the arms, and bladder and bowel problems.  The symptoms may develop suddenly (over a period of hours) or over days or weeks.Transverse myelitis can affect people of any age, gender, or race.  It does not appear to be genetic or run in families.  A peak in incidence rates (the number of new cases per year) appears to occur between 10 and 19 years and 30 and 39 years.  It is estimated that about 1,400 new cases of transverse myelitis are diagnosed each year in the United States.Although some people recover from transverse myelitis with minor or no residual problems, the healing process may take months to years.  Others may suffer permanent impairments that affect their ability to perform ordinary tasks of daily living.  Some individuals will have only one episode of transverse myelitis; other individuals may have a recurrence, especially if an underlying illness caused the disorder.There is no cure for transverse myelitis.  Treatments to prevent or minimize permanent neurological deficits include corticosteroid and other medications that suppress the immune system, plasmapheresis (removal of proteins from the blood), or antiviral medications.

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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex injury with a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities. The impact on a person and his or her family can be devastating. The purpose of this site is to educate and empower caregivers and survivors of traumatic brain injuries. This site aims to ease the transition from shock and despair at the time of a brain injury to coping and problem solving. Bookmark this site for the latest medical breakthroughs and brain research, the highest quality treatment for brain damage, the symptoms of brain injuries and the nation's best traumatic brain injury rehabilitation centers and resource information.


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    Toxic Hepatitis defines inflammatory liver disease.  The effect of irritant to liver cells causes inflammation of the liver tissue Irritant toxics to liver cells are alcohol, chemicals, street drugs and some nutritional supplements.  There have bene cases where Toxic Hepatitis has developed in a matter of hours or days since exposure to toxins whereas there have been other instances where it has taken months of regular exposure to the toxin before any symptom of Toxic Hepatitis is observed. Generally, symptoms produced by Toxic Hepatitis are self limiting and tend to go away when the exposure to the toxin is eliminated but there have been cases where Toxic Hepatitis has permanently damaged the liver resulting in cirrhosis and in some instances liver failure


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Toxic shock syndrome is a rare but serious medical condition caused by a bacterial infection. It is caused when the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus gets into the bloodstream and produces toxins.Although toxic shock syndrome has been linked to superabsorbent tampon use in menstruating women, this condition can affect men, children, and people of all ages. 

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Toxemia: A condition in pregnancy, also known as pre-eclampsia (or preeclampsia) characterized by abrupt hypertension (a sharp rise in blood pressure), albuminuria (leakage of large amounts of the protein albumin into the urine) and edema (swelling) of the hands, feet, and face. Pre-eclampsia is the most common complication of pregnancy. It affects about 5% of pregnancies. It occurs in the third trimester (the last third) of pregnancy.Pre-eclampsia occurs most frequently in first pregnancies. It is more common in women who have diabetes or who are carrying twins. Some women seem to have a strong tendency to develop the disease and suffer from pre-eclampsia with every pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia is more common in daughters of women who have been affected; in many cases the disease tends to run in families.Pre-eclampsia can be a sign of serious problems. It may, for example, indicate that the placenta is detaching from the uterus. In some cases, untreated pre-eclampsia can progress to eclampsia, a life-threatening situation for both mother and fetus characterized by coma and seizures.Treatment is by bed rest and sometimes medication. If that treatment is ineffective, the induction of labor and delivery or a C-section may have to be considered. Pre-eclampsia usually resolves a short time after the baby is born. 


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Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, stereotyped, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. The disorder is named for Dr. Georges Gilles de la Tourette, the pioneering French neurologist who in 1885 first described the condition in an 86-year-old French noblewoman.The early symptoms of TS are typically noticed first in childhood, with the average onset between the ages of 3 and 9 years. TS occurs in people from all ethnic groups; males are affected about three to four times more often than females. It is estimated that 200,000 Americans have the most severe form of TS, and as many as one in 100 exhibit milder and less complex symptoms such as chronic motor or vocal tics. Although TS can be a chronic condition with symptoms lasting a lifetime, most people with the condition experience their worst tic symptoms in their early teens, with improvement occurring in the late teens and continuing into adulthood.


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TMT Laboratories (a.k.a. Tension Member Technology or simply TMT) is primarily a large-scale mechanical test facility. Our 24,000-square-foot laboratory houses several large test machines with load frames, cylinders, and load cells that range in capacity from a few pounds to several million. These machines and their auxiliary equipment can be configured in various combinations to simulate a wide variety of mechanical service situations. To compliment the mechanical testing, TMT also keeps a large suite of electrical and optical test equipment that can be used to monitor various test parameters during mechanical or stand-alone tests. Since we opened our doors in 1976, we have worked with the oil & gas, telecommunication, military & defense, space & aviation, oceanographic, shipping, automotive, construction, and recreation industries. During this time, we have developed world-renowned expertise in the testing and optimizing of rope and cable systems. Despite our attraction to ropes and cables, we are always looking for new areas to apply our resources. Our test machines, diverse instrumentation, data acquisition equipment, and experienced engineers are ready to tackle a wide range of testing needs.


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Tay–Sachs disease is a genetic disorder that results in the destruction of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The most common type, known as infantile Tay–Sachs disease, becomes apparent around three to six months of age with the baby losing the ability to turn over, sit, or crawl. This is then followed by seizures, hearing loss, and inability to move. Death usually occurs in early childhood. Less commonly the disease may occur in later childhood or adulthood. These forms are generally milder in nature.

Tay–Sachs disease is caused by a genetic mutation in the HEXA genes on chromosome 15. It is inherited from a person's parents in an autosomal recessive manner. The mutation results in problems with an enzyme called beta-hexosaminidase A which results in the buildup of the molecule GM2 ganglioside within cells, leading to toxicity. Diagnosis is by measuring the blood hexosaminidase A level or genetic testing. It is a type of sphingolipidoses.
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Tooth decay and gum disease occur in both children and adults. Yet, when you keep your teeth and gums healthy and strong, these problems are preventable. Four components are crucial to your plan for strong teeth and healthy gums: a healthy diet, good oral hygiene, use of fluorides and regular professional cleanings. Not only will this help protect you against oral disease, but it can also help you to keep your teeth for a lifetime.

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Most people probably grind and clench their teeth from time to time. Occasional teeth grinding, medically called bruxism, does not usually cause harm, but when teeth grinding occurs on a regular basis the teeth can be damaged and other oral health complications can arise.

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Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis is a condition in which the outer part of the elbow becomes sore and tender at the lateral epicondyle. The forearm muscles and tendons become damaged from repetitive overuse. This leads to pain and tenderness on the outside of the elbow.

Any activity, including playing tennis, that involves repetitive use of the extensor muscles of the forearm can cause acute or chronic tendonitis of the tendinous insertion of these muscles at the lateral epicondyle of the elbow. The condition is common in carpenters and laborers who swing a hammer or other tool with the forearm, and is similar to golfer's elbow, which affects the medial epicondyle on the inside of the elbow. Continuing activity after onset of the condition and avoiding mandatory rest may lead to permanent onset of pain and only treatable via surgery.
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Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.

Not all lumps on the testicles are tumors, and not all tumors are cancer. There are many other conditions, such as testicular microlithiasis, epididymal cysts, and appendix testis (hydatid of Morgagni), which may be painful but are non-cancerous.

Testicular cancer has one of the highest cure rates of all cancers with an average five-year survival rate of 95%. If the cancer has not spread outside the testicle, the 5-year survival is 99% while if it has grown into nearby structures or has spread to nearby lymph nodes, the rate is 96% and if it has spread to organs or lymph nodes away from the testicles, the 5-year survival is around 74%. Even for the relatively few cases in which cancer has spread widely, chemotherapy offers a cure rate of at least 80%.

Globally testicular cancer resulted in 8,300 deaths in 2013 up from 7,000 deaths in 1990. In the United States, about 8,000 cases are diagnosed a year. In the UK, approximately 2,000 people are diagnosed each year,over a lifetime, the risk of testicular cancer is roughly 1 in 200 (0.5%). It is the most common cancer in males aged 20–39 years, the period when it is most common to start, and is rarely seen before the age of 15 years.
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Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In male humans, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as the testis and prostate, as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and bone mass, and the growth of body hair. In addition, testosterone is involved in health and well-being, and the prevention of osteoporosis. Insufficient levels of testosterone in men may lead to abnormalities including frailty and bone loss.

Testosterone is also used as a medication to treat male hypogonadism and certain types of breast cancer. Since testosterone levels gradually decrease as men age, synthetic testosterone is sometimes prescribed to older men to counteract this deficiency.

Testosterone is a steroid from the androstane class containing a keto and hydroxyl groups at the three and seventeen positions respectively. It is biosynthesized in several steps from cholesterol and is converted in the liver to inactive metabolites. It exerts its action through binding to and activation of the androgen receptor.
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The eyebrow is an area of thick, delicate hairs above the eye that follows the shape of the lower margin of the brow ridges of some mammals. Their main function is hypothesized to prevent sweat, water, and other debris from falling down into the eye socket, but they are also important to human communication and facial expression. It is not uncommon for people to modify their eyebrows by means of hair addition, removal and makeup.

According to the 2016 United States census, roughly 3% of the population suffers from a disease called madarosis, which is a deficiency where individuals cannot grow eyebrows or eyelashes.
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Thyroid cancer is cancer that develops from the tissues of the thyroid gland. It is a disease in which cells grow abnormally and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body.Symptoms can include swelling or a lump in the neck. Cancer can also occur in the thyroid after spread from other locations, in which case it is not classified as thyroid cancer.

Risk factors include radiation exposure at a young age, having an enlarged thyroid, and family history. There are four main types – papillary thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Diagnosis is often based on ultrasound and fine needle aspiration. Screening people without symptoms and at normal risk for the disease is not recommended as of 2017.
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Tinea cruris, also known as crotch itch, crotch rot, Dhobi itch, eczema marginatum, gym itch, jock itch, jock rot, scrot rot and ringworm of the groin 303 is a dermatophyte fungal infection of the groin region in any sex, though more often seen in males.
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Tinea versicolor is a condition characterized by a skin eruption on the trunk and proximal extremities. The majority of tinea versicolor is caused by the fungus Malassezia globosa, although Malassezia furfur is responsible for a small number of cases. These yeasts are normally found on the human skin and become troublesome only under certain circumstances, such as a warm and humid environment, although the exact conditions that cause initiation of the disease process are poorly understood.

The condition pityriasis versicolor was first identified in 1846. Versicolor comes from the Latin, from versāre to turn + color. It is also commonly referred to as Peter Elam's disease in many parts of South Asia.
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Tingling hands, feet, or both is an extremely common and bothersome symptom. Such tingling can sometimes be benign and temporary. For example, it could result from pressure on nerves when your arm is crooked under your head as you fall asleep. Or it could be from pressure on nerves when you cross your legs too long. In either case, the "pins and needles" effect -- which is usually painless -- is soon relieved by removing the pressure that caused it.

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Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present. While often described as a ringing, it may also sound like a clicking, hiss or roaring. Rarely, unclear voices or music are heard. The sound may be soft or loud, low pitched or high pitched and appear to be coming from one ear or both. Most of the time, it comes on gradually. In some people, the sound causes depression or anxiety and can interfere with concentration.

Tinnitus is not a disease but a symptom that can result from a number of underlying causes. One of the most common causes is noise-induced hearing loss. Other causes include: ear infections, disease of the heart or blood vessels, Ménière's disease, brain tumors, emotional stress, exposure to certain medications, a previous head injury, and earwax. It is more common in those with depression.
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The temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are the two joints connecting the jawbone to the skull. It is a bilateral synovial articulation between the temporal bone of the skull above and the mandible below; it is from these bones that its name is derived.
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Tobacco smoking is the practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases). (A more broad definition may include simply taking tobacco smoke into the mouth, and then releasing it, as is done by some with tobacco pipes and cigars.) The practice was believed to begin as early as 5000–3000 BC. Tobacco was introduced to Eurasia in the late 17th century where it followed common trade routes. The practice encountered criticism from its first import into the Western world onwards, but embedded itself in certain strata of a number of societies before becoming widespread upon the introduction of automated cigarette-rolling apparatus.


German scientists identified a link between smoking and lung cancer in the late 1920s, leading to the first anti-smoking campaign in modern history, albeit one truncated by the collapse of Nazi Germany at the end of World War II. In 1950, British researchers demonstrated a clear relationship between smoking and cancer. Evidence continued to mount in the 1980s, which prompted political action against the practice. Rates of consumption since 1965 in the developed world have either peaked or declined. However, they continue to climb in the developing world.

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Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium, is a fungal infection of the nail. This condition may affect toenails or fingernails, but toenail infections are particularly common.

Treatment may be based on the signs. Treatment may be with the medication terbinafine.

It occurs in about 10 percent of the adult population. It is the most common disease of the nails and constitutes about half of all nail abnormalities.
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Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils, typically of rapid onset. It is a type of pharyngitis. Symptoms may include sore throat, fever, enlargement of the tonsils, trouble swallowing, and large lymph nodes around the neck. Complications include peritonsillar abscess.

Tonsillitis is most commonly caused by a viral infection, with about 5% to 40% of cases caused by a bacterial infection. When caused by the bacterium group A streptococcus, it is referred to as strep throat. Rarely bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, or Haemophilus influenzae may be the cause. Typically the infection is spread between people through the air. A scoring system, such as the Centor score, may help separate possible causes. Confirmation may be by a throat swab or rapid strep test.
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Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria. The cavities may be a number of different colors from yellow to black. Symptoms may include pain and difficulty with eating. Complications may include inflammation of the tissue around the tooth, tooth loss, and infection or abscess formation.

The cause of caries is acid from bacteria dissolving the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin and cementum). The acid is produced from food debris or sugar on the tooth surface. Simple sugars in food are these bacteria's primary energy source and thus a diet high in simple sugar is a risk factor. If mineral breakdown is greater than build up from sources such as saliva, caries results. Risk factors include conditions that result in less saliva such as: diabetes mellitus, Sjogren's syndrome and some medications. Medications that decrease saliva production include antihistamines and antidepressants. Caries is also associated with poverty, poor cleaning of the mouth, and receding gums resulting in exposure of the roots of the teeth.
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Toothache, also known as dental pain, is pain in the teeth and/or their supporting structures, caused by dental diseases or pain referred to the teeth by non-dental diseases.

Common causes include inflammation of the pulp, usually in response to tooth decay, dental trauma, or other factors, dentin hypersensitivity (short, sharp pain, usually associated with exposed root surfaces), apical periodontitis (inflammation of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone around the root apex), dental abscesses (localized collections of pus, such as apical abscess, pericoronal abscess, and periodontal abscess), alveolar osteitis ("dry socket", a possible complication of tooth extraction, with loss of the blood clot and exposure of bone), acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (a gum infection, also called "trenchmouth"), temporomandibular disorder and others.

Pulpitis is classified as reversible when the pain is mild to moderate and lasts for a short time after a stimulus (for instance, cold or sweet); or irreversible when the pain is severe, spontaneous, and lasts a long time after a stimulus. Left untreated, pulpitis may become irreversible, then progress to pulp necrosis (death of the pulp) and apical periodontitis. Abscesses usually cause throbbing pain. The apical abscess usually occurs after pulp necrosis, the pericoronal abscess is usually associated with acute pericoronitis of a lower wisdom tooth, and periodontal abscesses usually represent a complication of chronic periodontitis (gum disease). Much less commonly, non-dental conditions can cause toothache, such as maxillary sinusitis, which can cause pain in the upper back teeth, or angina pectoris, which can cause pain in the lower teeth.
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A bone marrow transplant, also called a blood stem cell transplant or BMT, can treat many diseases. For some diseases, BMT is the only potential cure. There are over 70 diseases that can be treated by BMT. Some of them are listed here.  


    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)

    Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD)

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

    Hodgkin lymphoma

    Hurler syndrome

    Krabbe disease (Globoid-Cell Leukodystrophy)

    Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)

    Multiple myeloma

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)

    Severe aplastic anemia

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    Sickle cell disease (SCD)

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS)

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A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride). Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat. They are also present in the blood to enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver, and are a major component of human skin oils.

There are many different types of triglyceride, with the main division between saturated and unsaturated types. Saturated fats are "saturated" with hydrogen – all available places where hydrogen atoms could be bonded to carbon atoms are occupied. These have a higher melting point and are more likely to be solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats have double bonds between some of the carbon atoms, reducing the number of places where hydrogen atoms can bond to carbon atoms. These have a lower melting point and are more likely to be liquid at room temperature.
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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. About 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those infected. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. The historical term "consumption" came about due to the weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms.

Tuberculosis is spread through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze. People with latent TB do not spread the disease. Active infection occurs more often in people with HIV/AIDS and in those who smoke. Diagnosis of active TB is based on chest X-rays, as well as microscopic examination and culture of body fluids. Diagnosis of latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test (TST) or blood tests.
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Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms. Symptoms may vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure. Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days. Weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, and headaches also commonly occur. Diarrhea is uncommon and vomiting is not usually severe. Some people develop a skin rash with rose colored spots. In severe cases there may be confusion. Without treatment symptoms may last weeks or months. Other people may carry the bacterium without being affected; however, they are still able to spread the disease to others. Typhoid fever is a type of enteric fever along with paratyphoid fever.

The cause is the bacterium Salmonella typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, growing in the intestines and blood. Typhoid is spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Risk factors include poor sanitation and poor hygiene. Those who travel to the developing world are also at risk and only humans can be infected. Diagnosis is by either culturing the bacteria or detecting the bacterium's DNA in the blood, stool, or bone marrow. Culturing the bacterium can be difficult. Bone marrow testing is the most accurate. Symptoms are similar to that of many other infectious diseases. Typhus is a different disease.
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A thyroxine test helps diagnose disorders of the thyroid. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located near the throat. Your thyroid makes hormones that regulate the way your body uses energy. It also plays an important role in regulating your weight, body temperature, muscle strength, and even your mood. Thyroxine, also known as T4, is a type of thyroid hormone. This test measures the level of T4 in your blood. Too much or too little T4 can indicate thyroid disease.

The T4 hormone comes in two forms:

  • Free T4, which enters the body tissues where it's needed
  • Bound T4, which attaches to proteins, preventing it from entering body tissues

A test that measures both free and bound T4 is called a total T4 test. Other tests measure just free T4. A free T4 test is considered more accurate than a total T4 test for checking thyroid function.

Other names: free thyroxine, free T4, total T4 concentration, thyroxine screen, free T4 concentration.

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triglycerides test measures the amount of triglycerides in your blood. Triglycerides are a type of fat in your body. If you eat more calories than you need, the extra calories are changed into triglycerides. These triglycerides are stored in your fat cells for later use. When your body needs energy, triglycerides are released into your bloodstream to provide fuel for your muscles to work. If you eat more calories than you burn off, especially calories from carbohydrates and fats, you may get high triglyceride levels in your blood. High triglycerides may put you at greater risk for a heart attack or stroke.

Other names for a triglycerides test: TG, TRIG, lipid panel, fasting lipoprotein panel.

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TSH stands for thyroid stimulating hormone. A TSH test is a blood test that measures this hormone. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located near your throat. Your thyroid makes hormones that regulate the way your body uses energy. It also plays an important role in regulating your weight, body temperature, muscle strength, and even your mood. TSH is made in a gland in the brain called the pituitary. When thyroid levels in your body are low, the pituitary gland makes more TSH. When thyroid levels are high, the pituitary gland makes less TSH. TSH levels that are too high or too low can indicate your thyroid isn't working correctly.

Other names: thyrotropin test.

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Thrush (oropharyngeal candidiasis) is a medical condition in which a yeast-shaped fungus called Candida overgrows in the mouth and throat. Candida is normally present in the mouth, digestive tract, and skin of most healthy people. The immune system and the body's normal bacteria usually keep Candida in balance. When this balance is interrupted, it can result in an overgrowth of the Candida fungus, causing thrush, a yeast infection of the mouth or throat.

Thrush is not the same as a vaginal yeast infection. However, the Candida fungus also causes diaper rash, but diaper rash occurs on a child's rear end, genitals, and inner thighs, while oral thrush occurs in the mouth and throat. Adults may get yeast infections in areas of overlapping skin, such as underneath breasts or in skin folds like creases in skin due to fatty tissue.

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Thyroid nodules are solid or fluid-filled lumps that form within your thyroid, a small gland located at the base of your neck, just above your breastbone.

The great majority of thyroid nodules aren't serious and don't cause symptoms. Thyroid cancer accounts for only a small percentage of thyroid nodules.

You often won't know you have a thyroid nodule until your doctor discovers it during a routine medical exam. Some thyroid nodules, however, may become large enough to be visible or make it difficult to swallow or breathe.

Treatment options depend on the type of thyroid nodule you have.

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