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The hamstrings are the tendons that attach the large muscles at the back of the thigh to bone. The hamstring muscles are the large muscles that pull on these tendons. It has become common in layman's terminology (and by some medical personnel) to refer to the long muscles at the back of the thigh as the "hamstrings" or "hamstring muscles." Academic anatomists refer to them as the posterior thigh muscles, and more specifically as the semimembranosus, the semitendinosus, and the biceps femoris muscles. These muscles span the thigh, crossing both the hip and the knee. They originate or begin at just below the buttocks, arising from the bone on which we sit (the ischium). They connect by means of their tendons onto the upper parts of the lower leg bones (the tibia and the fibula).


The origin of the word hamstring comes from the old English hamm, meaning thigh. String refers to the characteristic appearance and feel of the tendons just above the back of the knee. Although the tendons are sometimes involved in injuries, this article will refer to the "hamstrings" as the large muscle group at the back of the thigh because the most frequent problems involve this muscle group.

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Hangovers can occur at any time of day, but are usually more common in the morning directly after a night of heavy drinking.


As well as physical symptoms, the person may experience elevated levels of anxiety, regret, shame, embarrassment, and depression. The severity of a hangover is closely linked to how much alcohol was consumed, and whether the sufferer had enough sleep; the less sleep, the worse the hangover.


It is impossible really to say how much alcohol can be safely consumed to avoid a hangover - it depends on the individual and other factors, such as how tired they were before they began drinking, whether they were already dehydrated before the drinking began, whether they drank plenty of water during their drinking session, and how much sleep they got 

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Heart rhythm problems (heart arrhythmias) occur when the electrical impulses that coordinate your heartbeats don't work properly, causing your heart to beat too fast, too slow or irregularly.


Heart arrhythmias (uh-RITH-me-uhs) may feel like a fluttering or racing heart and may be harmless. However, some heart arrhythmias may cause bothersome — sometimes even life-threatening — signs and symptoms.


Heart arrhythmia treatment can often control or eliminate fast, slow or irregular heartbeats. In addition, because troublesome heart arrhythmias are often made worse — or are even caused — by a weak or damaged heart, you may be able to reduce your arrhythmia risk by adopting a heart-healthy lifestyle.

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Heat exhaustion is a condition whose symptoms may include heavy sweating and a rapid pulse, a result of your body overheating. It's one of three heat-related syndromes, with heat cramps being the mildest and heatstroke being the most severe.


Causes of heat exhaustion include exposure to high temperatures, particularly when combined with high humidity, and strenuous physical activity. Without prompt treatment, heat exhaustion can lead to heatstroke, a life-threatening condition. Fortunately, heat exhaustion is preventable.

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Many different types of skin rashes exist. They can be concerning, uncomfortable, or downright painful. One of the most common types of rash is heat rash, or miliaria.


Heat rash is a skin condition that often affects children and adults in hot, humid weather conditions. You can develop heat rash when your pores become blocked and sweat can’t escape.


The cause of heat rash is often friction on the surface of the skin. Adults usually develop heat rash in the parts of their bodies that rub together, such as between the inner thighs or under the arms. Babies often develop heat rash on their necks, but it can also develop in skin folds such as the armpits, elbows, and thighs.

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Hemangiomas, or infantile hemangiomas, are noncancerous growths of blood vessels. They’re the most common growths or tumors in children. They usually grow for a period of time and then subside without treatment.


They don’t cause problems in most infants. However, some hemangiomas may open and bleed or ulcerate. This may be painful. Depending on their size and location, they may be disfiguring. Additionally, they may occur with other abnormalities of the central nervous system or spine.


The growths may also occur with other internal hemangiomas. These affect internal organs such as the liver, other parts of the gastrointestinal system, the brain, or organs of the respiratory system. The hemangiomas that affect organs usually don’t cause problems.


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Hemifacial spasms happen when the muscles on only one side of your face twitch without warning. These types of spasms are caused by damage or irritation to the facial nerve, which is also known as the seventh cranial nerve. Facial spasms occur when the muscles contract involuntarily because of this nerve irritation.


Hemifacial spasms are also known as tic convulsif. At first, they may appear only as small, barely noticeable tics around your eyelid, cheek, or mouth. Over time, the tics may expand to other parts of your face.


Hemifacial spasms can happen to men or women, but they’re most common in women over 40. They also tend to occur more often on the left side of your face. 


Hemifacial spasms aren’t dangerous on their own. But a constant twitch in your face can be frustrating or uncomfortable. In severe cases, these spasms can limit function due to involuntary eye closing or the impact they have on speaking.


In some cases, these spasms may indicate that you have an underlying condition or an abnormality in your facial structure. Either of these causes can compress or damage your nerves and make your face muscles twitch.

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Hemophilia is not one disease but rather one of a group of inherited bleeding disorders that cause abnormal or exaggerated bleeding and poor blood clotting. The term is most commonly used to refer to two specific conditions known as hemophilia A and hemophilia B, which will be the main subjects of this article. Hemophilia A and B are distinguished by the specific gene that is mutated (altered to become defective) and codes for a defective clotting factor (protein) in each disease. Rarely, hemophilia C (a deficiency of Factor XI) is encountered, but its effect on clotting is far less pronounced than A or B.


Hemophilia A and B are inherited in an X-linked recessive genetic pattern and are therefore much more common in males. This pattern of inheritance means that a given gene on the X chromosome expresses itself only when there is no normal gene present. For example, a boy has only one X chromosome, so a boy with hemophilia has the defective gene on his sole X chromosome (and so is said to be hemizygous for hemophilia). Hemophilia is the most common X-linked genetic disease.


Although it is much rarer, a girl can have hemophilia, but she would have to have the defective gene on both of her X chromosomes or have one hemophilia gene plus a lost or defective copy of the second X chromosome that should be carrying the normal genes. If a girl has one copy of the defective gene on one of her X chromosomes and a normal second X chromosome, she does not have hemophilia but is said to be heterozygous for hemophilia (a carrier). Her male children have a 50% chance of inheriting the one mutated X gene and thus have a 50% chance of inheriting hemophilia from their carrier mother.


Hemophilia A occurs in about 1 out of every 5000 live male births. Hemophilia A and B occurs in all racial groups. Hemophilia A is about four times more common than B. B occurs in about 1 out of 20- 30,000 live male births.


Hemophilia has been called the Royal Disease because Queen Victoria, Queen of England from 1837 to 1901, was a carrier. Her daughters passed the mutated gene on to members of the royal families of Germany, Spain, and Russia. Alexandra, Queen Victoria's granddaughter, who became Tsarina of Russia in the early 20th century when she married Tsar Nicholas II, was a carrier. Their son, the Tsarevich Alexei, suffered from hemophilia.

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Hepatitis A is a virus, or infection, that causes liver disease and inflammation of the liver. Viruses can cause sickness. For example, the flu is caused by a virus. People can pass viruses to each other.


Inflammation is swelling that occurs when tissues of the body become injured or infected. Inflammation can cause organs to not work properly.

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A herniated disk refers to a problem with one of the rubbery cushions (disks) between the individual bones (vertebrae) that stack up to make your spine.


A spinal disk is a little like a jelly donut, with a softer center encased within a tougher exterior. Sometimes called a slipped disk or a ruptured disk, a herniated disk occurs when some of the softer "jelly" pushes out through a tear in the tougher exterior.


A herniated disk can irritate nearby nerves and result in pain, numbness or weakness in an arm or leg. On the other hand, many people experience no symptoms from a herniated disk. Most people who have a herniated disk don't need surgery to correct the problem.

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Hidradenitis suppurativa (hi-drad-uh-NIE-tis sup-yoo-ruh-TIE-vuh) is rare, long-term skin condition that features small, painful lumps under the skin. They typically develop where the skin rubs together, such as the armpits, the groin, between the buttocks and under the breasts. The lumps may break open and smell or cause tunnels under the skin.


Hidradenitis suppurativa tends to start after puberty. It can persist for many years and worsen over time, with serious effects on your daily life and emotional well-being. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms, keep new lumps from forming and prevent complications, such as scar

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Hip dysplasia is the medical term for a hip socket that doesn't fully cover the ball portion of the upper thighbone. This allows the hip joint to become partially or completely dislocated. Most people with hip dysplasia are born with the condition.


Doctors will check your baby for signs of hip dysplasia shortly after birth and during well-baby visits. If hip dysplasia is diagnosed in early infancy, a soft brace can usually correct the problem.


If hip dysplasia is diagnosed after the age of 2, surgery may be necessary to move the bones into the proper positions for smooth joint movement.


Milder cases of hip dysplasia might not start causing symptoms until a person is a teenager or young adult. Hip dysplasia can damage the cartilage lining the joint, and it can also hurt the soft cartilage (labrum) that rims the socket portion of the hip joint. This is called a hip labral tear.

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A hip fracture is a serious injury, with complications that can be life-threatening. The risk of hip fracture rises with age.


Older people are at a higher risk of hip fracture because bones tend to weaken with age (osteoporosis). Multiple medications, poor vision and balance problems also make older people more likely to trip and fall — one of the most common causes of hip fracture.


A hip fracture almost always requires surgical repair or replacement, followed by months of physical therapy. Taking steps to maintain bone density and avoid falls can help prevent hip fracture.

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Your hip is the joint where your thigh bone meets your pelvis. It is called a ball-and-socket joint, because the ball-like top of your thigh bone fits into a cup-like area within your pelvis, much like a baseball fits into a glove.


Normally, the ball glides smoothly within the socket, but a problem with the ball or socket rim can interfere with smooth motion. This problem can cause hip impingement or femoro acetabular impingement (FAI). It is believed to be a major cause of early osteoarthritis of the hip, particularly in those under age 40.

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Your hip is the joint where your thigh bone meets your pelvis. It is called a ball-and-socket joint, because the ball-like top of your thigh bone fits into a cup-like area within your pelvis, much like a baseball fits into a glove.


Hip


Normally, the ball glides smoothly within the socket, but a problem with the ball or socket rim can interfere with smooth motion. This problem can cause hip impingement or femoro acetabular impingement (FAI). It is believed to be a major cause of early osteoarthritis of the hip, particularly in those under age 40.

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Hirsutism (HUR-soot-iz-um) is a condition of unwanted, male-pattern hair growth in women. Hirsutism results in excessive amounts of dark, course hair on body areas where men typically grow hair — face, chest and back.


The amount of body hair you have is largely determined by your genetic makeup. There's a wide range of normal hair distribution, thickness and color due to differences in heredity. However, hirsutism is a medical condition that can arise from excess male hormones called androgens, primarily testosterone. It can also be due to a family trait.

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Histoplasmosis is a type of lung infection. It is caused by inhaling Histoplasma capsulatum fungal spores. These spores are found in soil and in the droppings of bats and birds. This fungus mainly grows in the central, southeastern, and mid-Atlantic states.


Most cases of histoplasmosis don’t require treatment. However, people with weaker immune systems may experience serious problems. The disease may progress and spread to other areas of the body. Skin lesions have been reported in 10 to 15 percent of cases of histoplasmosis that has spread throughout the body.

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You do not have AIDS as soon as you acquire HIV. You can live with HIV (be HIV+) for many years with no signs of disease, or only mild-to-moderate symptoms. People living with HIV and taking HIV drugs as prescribed have a very low risk of progressing to AIDS. But without treatment, HIV will eventually wear down the immune system in most people to the point that they have low numbers of CD4 cells and develop opportunistic infections. Without treatment, this usually happens in five to ten years.


The definition of AIDS was established before there was effective treatment for HIV. It indicated that a person was at higher risk for illness or death. In countries where HIV treatment is readily available, AIDS is no longer as relevant as it once was. This is because having access to effective treatment means people can stay healthier even with low CD4 counts. Also, someone could have received the AIDS diagnosis years ago, which means they still have that diagnosis--even though they no longer have a low CD4 count.


The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identifies someone as having AIDS if she or he is living with HIV and has one or both of these conditions:


At least one AIDS-defining condition (see our list of AIDS-Defining Conditions)

A CD4 cell count of 200 cells or less (a normal CD4 count is about 500 to 1,500)

People with AIDS can rebuild their immune system with the help of HIV drugs and live a long healthy life. Even if your CD4 cell count goes back above 200 or an OI is successfully treated, you will still have a diagnosis of AIDS. This does not necessarily mean you are sick or will get sick in the future. It is just the way the public health system counts the number of people who have had advanced HIV disease.

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Hives — also known as urticaria (ur-tih-KAR-e-uh) — is a skin reaction that causes itchy welts, which can range in size from small spots to large blotches several inches in diameter. Hives can be triggered by exposure to certain foods, medications or other substances.


Angioedema is a related type of swelling that affects deeper layers in your skin, often around your face and lips. In most cases, hives and angioedema are harmless and don't leave any lasting marks, even without treatment.


The most common treatment for hives and angioedema is antihistamine medication. Serious angioedema can be life-threatening if swelling causes your throat or tongue to block your airway.

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Horner syndrome is a combination of signs and symptoms caused by the disruption of a nerve pathway from the brain to the face and eye on one side of the body.


Typically, Horner syndrome results in a decreased pupil size, a drooping eyelid and decreased sweating on the affected side of your face.


Horner syndrome is the result of another medical problem, such as a stroke, tumor or spinal cord injury. In some cases, no underlying cause can be found. There's no specific treatment for Horner syndrome, but treatment for the underlying cause may restore normal nerve function.


Horner syndrome is also known as Horner-Bernard syndrome or oculosympathetic palsy.

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HPV infection commonly causes skin or mucous membrane growths (warts). Certain types of HPV infection cause cervical cancers. More than 100 varieties of human papillomavirus (HPV) exist.


Different types of HPV infection cause warts on different parts of your body. For example, some types of HPV infection cause plantar warts on the feet, while others cause warts that mostly appear on the face or neck.


Most HPV infections don't lead to cancer. But some types of genital HPV can cause cancer of the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina (cervix). Other types of cancers, including cancers of the anus, penis, vagina, vulva and back of the throat (oropharyngeal), have been linked to HPV infection.


Vaccines can help protect against the strains of genital HPV most likely to cause genital warts or cervical cancer.

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Hunter syndrome is a very rare, inherited genetic disorder caused by a missing or malfunctioning enzyme. Because the body doesn't have enough of the enzyme to break down certain complex molecules, the molecules build up in harmful amounts.


In Hunter syndrome, the buildup of massive amounts of these harmful substances eventually causes permanent, progressive damage affecting appearance, mental development, organ function and physical abilities.


Hunter syndrome appears in children as young as 18 months. It mainly occurs in boys, although very rarely it has been observed in girls.


There's no cure for Hunter syndrome. Treatment of Hunter syndrome involves management of symptoms and complications.

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Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurological condition. It is an inherited disease that happens due to faulty genes. Toxic proteins collect in the brain and cause damage, leading to neurological symptoms.


As parts of the brain deteriorate, this affects movement, behavior, and cognition. It becomes harder to walk, think, reason, swallow, and talk. Eventually, the person will need full-time care. The complications are usually fatal.


There is currently no cure, but treatment can help with symptoms.

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A hydrocele is a sac filled with fluid that forms around a testicle. Hydroceles are most common in babies.


Nearly 10 percent of males are born with a hydrocele. However, they can affect males of any age.


Hydroceles generally don’t pose any threat to the testicles. They’re usually painless and disappear without treatment. However, if you have scrotal swelling, see your doctor to rule out other causes that are more harmful such as testicular cancer.

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The term hydrocephalus is derived from the Greek words "hydro" meaning water and "cephalus" meaning head. As the name implies, it is a condition in which the primary characteristic is excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain. Although hydrocephalus was once known as "water on the brain," the "water" is actually cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)--a clear fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. The excessive accumulation of CSF results in an abnormal widening of spaces in the brain called ventricles. This widening creates potentially harmful pressure on the tissues of the brain.


The ventricular system is made up of four ventricles connected by narrow passages.. Normally, CSF flows through the ventricles, exits into cisterns (closed spaces that serve as reservoirs) at the base of the brain, bathes the surfaces of the brain and spinal cord, and then reabsorbs into the bloodstream.


CSF has three important life-sustaining functions: 1) to keep the brain tissue buoyant, acting as a cushion or "shock absorber"; 2) to act as the vehicle for delivering nutrients to the brain and removing waste; and 3) to flow between the cranium and spine and compensate for changes in intracranial blood volume (the amount of blood within the brain).


The balance between production and absorption of CSF is critically important. Because CSF is made continuously, medical conditions that block its normal flow or absorption will result in an over-accumulation of CSF. The resulting pressure of the fluid against brain tissue is what causes hydrocephalus.

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One of the most common causes of high calcium levels (hypercalcemia), is an overproduction of parathyroid hormone, or hyperparathyroidism.


Hyperparathyroidism tends to be more common in women over 50.

It can be the result of all four parathyroid glands producing too much PTH (parathyroid hyperplasia), or one gland specifically producing an excessive amount of hormone (usually the result of a parathyroid adenoma, or benign tumor).

Hypercalcemia can occur due to other medical conditions. These conditions can vary in severity and chronicity, and may be life-threatening. Malignancy is a common cause of elevated blood calcium. Up to 20% of individuals with cancer will develop hypercalcemia at some point in their disease.

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Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) refers to a rare group of conditions that are associated with persistent eosinophilia with evidence of organ involvement. Signs and symptoms vary significantly based on which parts of the body are affected. Although any organ system can be involved in HES, the heart, central nervous system, skin, and respiratory tract are the most commonly affected. The condition was originally thought to be "idiopathic" or of unknown cause. However, recent advances in diagnostic testing have allowed a cause to be identified in approximately a quarter of cases. Management varies based on the severity of the condition and whether or not an underlying cause has been identified but generally includes imatinib or corticosteroids as an initial treatment.

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High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication.


It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart.

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Hyperhidrosis, or excessive sweating, is a common disorder which produces a lot of unhappiness. An estimated 2%-3% of Americans suffer from excessive sweating of the underarms (axillary hyperhidrosis) or of the palms and soles of the feet (palmoplantar hyperhidrosis). Underarm problems tend to start in late adolescence, while palm and sole sweating often begins earlier, around age 13 (on the average). Untreated, these problems may continue throughout life.


Sweating is embarrassing, it stains clothes, ruins romance, and complicates business and social interactions. Severe cases can have serious practical consequences as well, making it hard for people who suffer from it to hold a pen, grip a car steering wheel, or shake hands.

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Hyperparathyroidism is an excess of parathyroid hormone in the bloodstream due to overactivity of one or more of the body's four parathyroid glands. These glands are about the size of a grain of rice and are located in your neck.


The parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone, which helps maintain an appropriate balance of calcium in the bloodstream and in tissues that depend on calcium for proper functioning.


Two types of hyperparathyroidism exist. In primary hyperparathyroidism, an enlargement of one or more of the parathyroid glands causes overproduction of the hormone, resulting in high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia), which can cause a variety of health problems. Surgery is the most common treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism.


Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs as a result of another disease that initially causes low levels of calcium in the body and over time, increased parathyroid hormone levels occur.

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Hyponatremia is a condition that occurs when the level of sodium in your blood is abnormally low. Sodium is an electrolyte, and it helps regulate the amount of water that's in and around your cells.


In hyponatremia, one or more factors — ranging from an underlying medical condition to drinking too much water during endurance sports — causes the sodium in your body to become diluted. When this happens, your body's water levels rise, and your cells begin to swell. This swelling can cause many health problems, from mild to life-threatening.


Hyponatremia treatment is aimed at resolving the underlying condition. Depending on the cause of hyponatremia, you may simply need to cut back on how much you drink. In other cases of hyponatremia, you may need intravenous fluids and medications.

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Hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon condition in which your body secretes abnormally low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH is key to regulating and maintaining a balance of your body's levels of two minerals — calcium and phosphorus.


The low production of PTH in hypoparathyroidism leads to abnormally low calcium levels in your blood and bones and to an increase of phosphorus in your blood.


Supplements to normalize your calcium and phosphorus levels treat the condition. Depending on the cause of your hypoparathyroidism, you'll likely need to take supplements for life.

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Hypopituitarism is a rare disorder in which your pituitary gland either fails to produce one or more of its hormones or doesn't produce enough of them.


The pituitary gland is a small bean-shaped gland situated at the base of your brain, behind your nose and between your ears. Despite its size, this gland secretes hormones that influence nearly every part of your body.


In hypopituitarism, you have a short supply of one or more of these pituitary hormones. This deficiency can affect any number of your body's routine functions, such as growth, blood pressure and reproduction.


You'll likely need medications for the rest of your life to treat hypopituitarism, but your symptoms can be controlled.


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Hypospadias (hi-poe-SPAY-dee-us) is a birth defect (congenital condition) in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip. The urethra is the tube through which urine drains from your bladder and exits your body.


Hypospadias is common and doesn't cause difficulty in caring for your infant. Surgery usually restores the normal appearance of your child's penis. With successful treatment of hypospadias, most males can have normal urination and reproduction.

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Hypothermia is defined as a body temperature (core, or internal body temperature) of less than about 95 F (35 C). Usually, hypothermia occurs when the body's temperature regulation is overwhelmed by a cold environment. However, in the medical and lay literature there are essentially two major classifications, accidental hypothermia and intentional hypothermia.


Accidental hypothermia usually occurs from an exposure to cold that results in lowering the body temperature.


Intentional hypothermia is body temperature lowering induced usually for a medical procedure.


This article will focus on accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia is a medical emergency that, when quickly and appropriately treated, people can recover with little or no consequences.


Body temperature, when discussing hypothermia, is usually termed "core" temperature. This temperature is the temperature measured inside the body. It's a measurement that is most accurately done by a rectal thermometer, a rectal probe thermometer that has a constant temperature readout or by a bladder or esophageal temperature device. Temperatures taken by other methods may not adequately measure core temperature.

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Hysterosalpingography is a procedure where x rays are taken of a woman's reproductive tract after a dye is injected.Hystero means uterus and salpingo means tubes, so hysterosalpingography literally means to take pictures of the uterusand fallopian tubes. This procedure may also be called hysterography (or HSG).As with other types of pelvic examinations, the woman will lie on her back on an examination table with her legssometimes raised in stirrups. The x-ray equipment is placed above the abdomen.A speculum is inserted into the vagina and a catheter (a thin tube) is inserted into the uterus through the cervix (theopening to the uterus). A small balloon in the catheter is inflated to hold it in place. A liquid water-based or oil-based dyeis then injected through the catheter into the uterus. This process can cause cramping, pain, and uterine spasms.As the dye spreads through the reproductive tract, the doctor may watch for blockages or abnormalities on an x-raymonitor. Several x rays will also be taken. The procedure takes approximately 15-30 minutes. The x rays will bedeveloped while the patient waits, but the final reading and interpretation of the x rays by a radiologist (a doctor whospecializes in x rays) may not be available for a few days.Interestingly, sometimes the hysterosalpingography procedure itself can be considered a treatment. The dye used cansometimes open up small blockages in the fallopian tubes. The need for additional test procedures or surgical treatmentsto deal with infertility should be discussed with the doctor.


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Helicobacter pylori is a type of bacteria that is known to be a major cause of peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori testing detects an infection of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract caused by the bacteria.


H. pylori is very common, especially in developing countries. The bacteria are present in (colonize) the stomachs and intestines of as many as 50% of the world's population. Most of those affected will never have any symptoms, but the presence of H. pylori increases the risk of developing ulcers (peptic ulcer disease), chronic gastritis, and gastric (stomach) cancer. The bacteria decrease the stomach's ability to produce mucus, making the stomach prone to acid damage and peptic ulcers.


There are several different types of H. pylori testing that can be performed. Some are less invasive than others.


Noninvasive


Stool antigen test – detection of H. pylori in a stool sample

Urea breath test – detection of labeled carbon dioxide in the breath after drinking a solution 


An antibody test using a blood sample is not recommended for routine diagnosis or for evaluation of treatment effectiveness. This test detects antibodies to the bacteria and will not distinguish between a present and previous infection. If the antibody test is negative, then it is unlikely that a person has had an H. pylori infection. If ordered and positive, results should be confirmed using a stool antigen or breath test.


Invasive


Invasive tests using an endoscopy procedure are less frequently performed than noninvasive tests because they require a tissue biopsy collection. Tests include:


Histology – examination of tissue under a microscope

Rapid urease testing – detects urease, an enzyme produced by H. pylori

Culture – growing H. pylori in/on a nutrient solution

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Hemoglobin is the iron-containing protein found in all red blood cells (RBCs) that gives the cells their characteristic red color. Hemoglobin enables RBCs to bind to oxygen in the lungs and carry it to tissues and organs throughout the body. It also helps transport a small portion of carbon dioxide, a product of cell metabolism, from tissues and organs to the lungs, where it is exhaled.


The hemoglobin test measures the amount of hemoglobin in a person's sample of blood. A hemoglobin level can be performed alone or with a hematocrit, a test that measures the proportion of blood that is made up of RBCs, to quickly evaluate an individual's red blood cells. Red blood cells, which make up about 40% (ranging 37-49%) of the blood's volume, are produced in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream when they are, or nearly are, mature. The typical lifespan of an RBC is 120 days, and the bone marrow must continually produce new RBCs to replace those that age and degrade or are lost through bleeding.


Several diseases and conditions can affect RBCs and consequently the level of hemoglobin in the blood. In general, the hemoglobin level and hematocrit rise when the number of red blood cells increases. The hemoglobin level and hematocrit fall to less than normal when there is a drop in production of RBCs by the bone marrow, an increase in the destruction of RBCs, or if blood is lost due to bleeding. A drop in the RBC count, hemoglobin and hematocrit can result in anemia, a condition in which tissues and organs in the body do not get enough oxygen, causing fatigue and weakness. If too many RBCs are produced, polycythemia results and the blood can become thickened, causing sluggish blood flow and related problems.

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The absolute hemoglobin A2 concentration in mg. per 100 ml. of blood was calculated from the hemoglobin level in Gm. per 100 ml. and hemoglobin A2 percentage for 38 patients with documented iron deficiency, 37 patients with proven beta-thalassemia minor, 26 patients with simple chronic anemia and 40 normal control laboratory workers. The mean hemoglobin A2 concentration (mg. per 100 ml.) in the control group was 459 plus or minus 60 (2 S.D.) and that in the beta-thalassemia group, 766 plus or minus 99. However, in the iron deficiency group it was 229 plus or minus 58, while in the simple chronic anemia group it was 315 plus or minus 39. The mean corpuscular volume (M.C.V.) in cu. mu was 90 plus or minus 8 (2 S.D.) in the normal controls, 68 plus or minus 10 in beta-thalassemia, 69 plus or minus 9 in iron deficiency, and 90 plus or minus 15 in secondary anemia. It is proposed that the absolute hemoglobin A2 level in mg. per 100 ml. of blood taken in conjunction with the M.C.V. is of value in establishing the diagnosis of iron deficiency.

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A hemoglobin electrophoresis test is a blood test used to measure and identify the different types of hemoglobin in your bloodstream. Hemoglobin is the protein inside red blood cells responsible for transporting oxygen to your tissues and organs.


Genetic mutations can cause your body to produce hemoglobin that is formed incorrectly. This abnormal hemoglobin can cause too little oxygen to reach your tissues and organs.


There are hundreds of different types of hemoglobin. They include:


Hemoglobin F: This is also known as fetal hemoglobin. It’s the type found in growing fetuses and newborns. It’s replaced with hemoglobin A soon after birth.

Hemoglobin A: This is also known as adult hemoglobin. It’s the most common type of hemoglobin. It’s found in healthy children and adults.

Hemoglobin C, D, E, M, and S: These are rare types of abnormal hemoglobin caused by genetic mutations.

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A Complete Blood Count (cbc) or a Heamogram is the one of the most commonly ordered test. A complete blood count gives info in to components of blood i.e. White Blood Cells, Red Blood Cells and Platelet Count. The CBC also gives you information on Haemoglobin, the oxygen carrying component of your blood.


Why is Cbc Test is Performed?

A complete blood count (CBC) is a commonly performed pathology  lab test. It can be used to detect or monitor many different health conditions. It is a part of a routine check-up, if you are having symptoms, such as fatigue, weight loss, fever or other signs of an infection, weakness, bruising, bleeding, or any signs of cancer

When you are receiving treatments (medicines or radiation) that may change your blood count results

This test helps to monitor a chronic health problem that may change your blood count results, such as chronic kidney disease.


Advantage of  Complete Blood Count test: It can record any abnormality in the above components and give information of any underlying medial cause, especially in the case of Anaemia, Leukaemia and infection.


CBC is also ordered when you are suffering from fever or an infection. The test results can give multiple insights in to your infection.

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Haptoglobin is a protein produced by the liver that the body uses to clear free hemoglobin (found outside of red blood cells) from circulation. This test measures the amount of haptoglobin in the blood.


Hemoglobin is the iron-containing protein complex that transports oxygen throughout the body. It is normally found within red blood cells (RBCs) and very little is found free circulating in the blood. Haptoglobin binds to free hemoglobin in the blood. This forms a haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex that is rapidly cleared out of circulation for degradation and iron recycling.


However, when an increased number of RBCs are damaged and/or break apart (hemolysis), they release their hemoglobin into the blood, increasing the amount of free hemoglobin in circulation. When large numbers of RBCs are destroyed, haptoglobin concentrations in the blood will temporarily decrease as the haptoglobin is used up faster than the liver can produce it. A decrease in the amount of haptoglobin may be a sign that a person has a condition that is causing red blood cells to be destroyed or break apart. When the binding capacity of haptoglobin is exceeded, free hemoglobin level in circulation goes up and may cause tissue damage and organ dysfunction.


Increased RBC destruction may be due to inherited or acquired conditions. Some examples include transfusion reactions, certain drugs, and mechanical breakage, such as may be seen with some prosthetic heart valves. The destruction may be mild or severe, occurring suddenly (acute) or developing and lasting over a long period of time (chronic), and it can lead to hemolytic anemia. People with hemolytic anemia may experience symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath and their skin may be pale or jaundiced. (For additional details, read the article on Hemolytic Anemia.)


Liver disease may also result in decreased haptoglobin concentrations as liver damage may inhibit both the production of haptoglobin and the clearing of the haptoglobin-free hemoglobin complexes.



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Hepatitis B tests detect substances that reflect a current or previous infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Some tests detect viral proteins (antigens) or the antibodies that are produced in response to an infection, while other types of tests detect or evaluate the genetic material (DNA) of the virus. The pattern of test results can identify a person who has a current active infection or one who has immunity as a result of previous exposure.


For details on the various tests, see the table under "How is it used?"


Hepatitis is a condition characterized by inflammation and enlargement of the liver. It has several various causes, one of which is infection by a virus. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" identified so far that are known to mainly infect the liver. The other four are hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E.


HBV is spread through contact with blood or other body fluids from an infected person. Exposure can occur, for example, through sharing of needles for IV drug use or through unprotected sex. People who live in or travel to areas of the world where hepatitis B is prevalent are at a greater risk. Rarely, mothers can pass the infection to their babies, usually during or after birth. The virus is not spread through casual contact such as holding hands, coughing or sneezing. However, the virus can survive outside the body for up to seven days, including in dried blood, and can be passed by sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person.

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Hepatitis B tests detect substances that reflect a current or previous infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Some tests detect viral proteins (antigens) or the antibodies that are produced in response to an infection, while other types of tests detect or evaluate the genetic material (DNA) of the virus. The pattern of test results can identify a person who has a current active infection or one who has immunity as a result of previous exposure.


For details on the various tests, see the table under "How is it used?"


Hepatitis is a condition characterized by inflammation and enlargement of the liver. It has several various causes, one of which is infection by a virus. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" identified so far that are known to mainly infect the liver. The other four are hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E.


HBV is spread through contact with blood or other body fluids from an infected person. Exposure can occur, for example, through sharing of needles for IV drug use or through unprotected sex. People who live in or travel to areas of the world where hepatitis B is prevalent are at a greater risk. Rarely, mothers can pass the infection to their babies, usually during or after birth. The virus is not spread through casual contact such as holding hands, coughing or sneezing. However, the virus can survive outside the body for up to seven days, including in dried blood, and can be passed by sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person.

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Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg): A protein on the surface of hepatitis B virus; it can be detected in high levels in serum during acute or chronic hepatitis B virus infection. The presence of HBsAg indicates that the person is infectious HBsAg is the antigen used to make hepatitis B vaccine.

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High-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, HDL-C) is one of the classes of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol in the blood. HDL-C consists primarily of protein with a small amount of cholesterol. It is considered to be beneficial because it removes excess cholesterol from tissues and carries it to the liver for disposal. Hence, HDL cholesterol is often termed "good" cholesterol. The test for HDL cholesterol measures the amount of HDL-C in blood.


High levels of cholesterol have been shown to be associated with the development of hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and heart disease. When cholesterol levels in the blood increase (not enough is removed by HDL), it may be deposited on the walls of blood vessels. These deposits, termed plaques, can build up, causing vessel walls to become more rigid, and may eventually narrow the openings of blood vessels, constricting the flow of blood.

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When the plasma hemoglobin level is >50 to 200 mg/dL after hemolysis, the capacity of haptoglobin to bind hemoglobin is exceeded, and hemoglobin readily passes through the glomeruli of the kidney. Part of the hemoglobin is absorbed by the proximal tubular cells where the hemoglobin iron is converted to hemosiderin. When these tubular cells are later shed into the urine, hemosiderinuria results. If all of the hemoglobin cannot be absorbed into the tubular cells, hemoglobinuria results.

Hemosiderin is found as yellow-brown granules that are free or in epithelial cells and occasionally in casts in an acidic or neutral urine.

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Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A (HAV). It is one of several various causes of hepatitis, a condition characterized by inflammation and enlargement of the liver. This test detects antibodies in the blood that are produced by the immune system in response to a hepatitis A infection.


Hepatitis A is one of five "hepatitis viruses" identified so far, including B, C, D, and E, that are known to cause the disease. While hepatitis A can cause a severe, acute disease that typically lasts 1 to 2 months, it does not cause a chronic infection as do some of the other hepatitis viruses.


Hepatitis A is spread, most commonly, from person-to person through stool (fecal) contamination or by ingesting food or water contaminated by the stool of an infected person (a foodborne illness). Recognized risk factors for hepatitis A include close contact with an infected person, international travel, household or personal contact with a child who attends a child care center, household or personal contact with a newly arriving international adoptee, a recognized foodborne outbreak, men who have sex with men, and use of illegal drugs.


Although there are many causes of hepatitis, the symptoms remain the same. In hepatitis, the liver is damaged and unable to function normally. It cannot process toxins or waste products such as bilirubin for their removal from the body. During the course of the disease, bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood can increase. While tests such as bilirubin or a liver panel can tell a health practitioner that someone has hepatitis, they do not identify the cause. Antibody tests for hepatitis viruses may help determine the cause.

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Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A (HAV). It is one of several various causes of hepatitis, a condition characterized by inflammation and enlargement of the liver. This test detects antibodies in the blood that are produced by the immune system in response to a hepatitis A infection.

Hepatitis A is one of five "hepatitis viruses" identified so far, including B, C, D, and E, that are known to cause the disease. While hepatitis A can cause a severe, acute disease that typically lasts 1 to 2 months, it does not cause a chronic infection as do some of the other hepatitis viruses.

Hepatitis A is spread, most commonly, from person-to person through stool (fecal) contamination or by ingesting food or water contaminated by the stool of an infected person (a foodborne illness). Recognized risk factors for hepatitis A include close contact with an infected person, international travel, household or personal contact with a child who attends a child care center, household or personal contact with a newly arriving international adoptee, a recognized foodborne outbreak, men who have sex with men, and use of illegal drugs.

Although there are many causes of hepatitis, the symptoms remain the same. In hepatitis, the liver is damaged and unable to function normally. It cannot process toxins or waste products such as bilirubin for their removal from the body. During the course of the disease, bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood can increase. While tests such as bilirubin or a liver panel can tell a health practitioner that someone has hepatitis, they do not identify the cause. Antibody tests for hepatitis viruses may help determine the cause.

There are two different classes of hepatitis A antibody that may be tested, IgM and IgG. When a person is exposed to hepatitis A, the body first produces hepatitis A IgM antibodies. These antibodies typically develop 2 to 3 weeks after first being infected (and are detectable before the onset of symptoms) and persist for about 3 to 6 months. Hepatitis A IgG antibodies are produced within 1 to 2 weeks of the IgM antibodies and usually persist for life.

1.Because hepatitis A IgM antibodies develop early in the course of infection, a positive hepatitis A IgM test is usually considered diagnostic for a current or recent infection of hepatitis A. This test may be done as part of an acute viral hepatitis panel used to determine which virus is causing symptoms when viral hepatitis is suspected.

2.An HAV IgG test may be used to help determine if a person has been infected in the past and has some immunity to the disease.

3.A total hepatitis A antibody test detects the presence of both the IgM and IgG antibodies, thus can identify current and past infections.

A vaccine that prevents hepatitis A has been available since 1995. Historically, infection rates varied cyclically, with nationwide increases every 10-15 years. However, rates have declined in general since the vaccine was introduced. In 2010, the number of acute hepatitis A cases reported nationwide declined by approximately 53% from about 3,600 in 2006.



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Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc Ab) appear shortly after the onset of symptoms of hepatitis B infection and soon after the appearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Initially, anti-HBc Ab consist almost entirely of the IgM class, followed by appearance of anti-HBc IgG, for which there is no commercial diagnostic assay.


The anti-HBc total antibodies test, which detects both IgM and IgG antibodies, and the test for anti-HBc IgM antibodies may be the only markers of a recent hepatitis B infection detectable in the "window period." The window period begins with the clearance of HBsAg and ends with the appearance of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs Ab). Anti-HBc total Ab may be the only serologic marker remaining years after exposure to hepatitis B.

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Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is one of several various causes of hepatitis, a condition characteriszed by inflammation and enlargement of the liver. Other causes of hepatitis include, for example, certain drugs, inherited disorders, and autoimmune diseases. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" identified so far. The other four are A, C, D, and E. 


The course of HBV infections can vary from a mild form (acute) that lasts only a few weeks to a more serious, chronic, form lasting years. Sometimes chronic HBV leads to serious complications such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. 


HBV is spread through contact with blood or other body fluids from an infected person. Exposure can occur, for example, through sharing of needles for IV drug use or through unprotected sex. People who live in or travel to areas of the world where hepatitis B is prevalent are at a greater risk. Mothers can pass the infection to their babies, usually during or after birth. The virus, however, is not spread through food or water, casual contact such as holding hands, or coughing or sneezing.

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This test measures the actual amount of hepatitis B in a blood sample, which helps determine whether HBV is reproducing in the liver. In a person with detectable HBeAg, an HBV viral load greater than 20,000 international units per milliliter (IU/mL) of blood indicates that the virus is active and has the greatest potential to cause damage to the liver. Similarly, in a person with an HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B, an HBV viral load of greater than 2,000 IU/mL indicates that the virus is active and has the potential to cause damage to the liver. Generally speaking, if the HBV viral load is above these numbers, treatment is considered necessary. However, HBV treatment decisions are based on multiple factors, and your medical provider may make recommendations based on other input.

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HBeAg is the hepatitis B envelope antigen, and anti-HBe are the antibodies produced against this antigen. If HBeAg is detectable in a blood sample, this means that the virus is still active in the liver (and can be transmitted to others). If HBeAg is negative and anti-HBe is positive, this generally means that the virus is inactive. However, this is not always the case. Some people with chronic hepatitis—especially those who have been infected with HBV for many years—may have what is known as a precore or core variant mutated form of HBV. This can cause HBeAg to be negative and anti-HBe to be positive, even though the virus is still active in the liver.

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Often used as a marker of ability to spread the virus to other people (infectivity); it may also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. However, there are some types (strains) of HBV that do not make e-antigen; these are especially common in the Middle East and Asia. In areas where these strains of HBV are common, testing for HBeAg is not very useful to determine whether the virus can be spread to others.

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An HCV antibody test is typically reported as "positive" or "negative."


Results of HCV viral load testing are reported as a number if virus is present. If no virus is present or if the amount of virus is too low to detect, the result is often reported as "negative" or "not detected."


Interpretation of the HCV screening and follow-up tests is shown in the table below. In general, if the HCV antibody test is positive, then the individual tested is infected or has likely been infected at some time with hepatitis C. If the HCV RNA test is positive, then the person has a current infection. If no HCV viral RNA is detected, then the person either does not have an active infection or the virus is present in very low numbers.


For monitoring purposes, an HCV viral load (HCV RNA quantitative) can indicate whether or not treatment is effective. A high or increasing viral load may be a sign that treatment is not successful whereas a low, decreasing, or undetectable viral load may imply that the treatment is working.


Successful treatment causes a decrease of 99% or more in viral load soon after starting treatment (as early as 2-4 weeks) and usually leads to undetectable viral load after treatment is completed. According to guidelines from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Infectious Disease Society of America, an undetectable viral load in a treated person's blood 12 weeks after the end of the treatment means that the HCV infection has responded to therapy.

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The qualitative HCV RNA tests use either a process called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or a process called transcription-mediated amplification (TMA). Either type of qualitative test will report whether the hepatitis C virus is present in the bloodstream or not. The result is reported as either "detected" or "not detected."

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Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an acute, usually self-limited infection. This small, non-enveloped RNA virus is from animal reservoir (eg, hogs) to humans via the fecal-oral route. HEV is endemic in Southeast and Central Asia, with several outbreaks observed in the Middle East, northern and western parts of Africa, and Mexico. In developed countries, HEV infection occurs mainly in persons who have traveled to disease-endemic areas. Transmission of HEV may also occur parenterally, and direct person-to-person transmission is rare. Clinically severe cases occur in young to middle-aged adults. Unusually high mortality (approximately 20%) occurs in patients infected during the third trimester of pregnancy. Although there is no carrier state associated with HEV, immunocompromised patients may have prolonged periods (eg, months) of viremia and virus shedding in the stool.


In immunocompetent patients, viremia and virus shedding in the stool occur in the preicteric phase, lasting up to 10 days into the clinical phase. After an incubation period ranging from 15 to 60 days, HEV-infected patients develop symptoms of hepatitis with appearance of anti-HEV IgM antibody in serum, followed by detectable anti-HEV IgG within a few days. Anti-HEV IgM may remain detectable up to 6 months after onset of symptoms, while anti-HEV IgG usually persists for many years after infection. Anti-HEV IgM is the serologic marker of choice for diagnosis of acute HEV infection.

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This assay is useful for diagnosis of Acute Hepatitis B infection. It identifies Acute HBV infection in the core window period when HBsAg and Anti HBs are negative. It also differentiates between acute and chronic HBV infection in the presence of positive Anti HBc

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Hepatitis B tests detect substances that reflect a current or previous infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Some tests detect viral proteins (antigens) or the antibodies that are produced in response to an infection, while other types of tests detect or evaluate the genetic material (DNA) of the virus. The pattern of test results can identify a person who has a current active infection or one who has immunity as a result of previous exposure.

For details on the various tests, see the table under "How is it used?"

Hepatitis is a condition characterized by inflammation and enlargement of the liver. It has several various causes, one of which is infection by a virus. HBV is one of five "hepatitis viruses" identified so far that are known to mainly infect the liver. The other four are hepatitis A, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E.

HBV is spread through contact with blood or other body fluids from an infected person. Exposure can occur, for example, through sharing of needles for IV drug use or through unprotected sex. People who live in or travel to areas of the world where hepatitis B is prevalent are at a greater risk. Rarely, mothers can pass the infection to their babies, usually during or after birth. The virus is not spread through casual contact such as holding hands, coughing or sneezing. However, the virus can survive outside the body for up to seven days, including in dried blood, and can be passed by sharing items such as razors or toothbrushes with an infected person.

Effective hepatitis B vaccines have been available in the U.S. since 1981, and beginning in 1991, health care providers in the U.S. began vaccinating infants at birth. Still, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that between 804,000 and 1.4 million people in the U.S. are infected with the virus, most of whom are not aware that they are infected.

The course of HBV infections can vary from a mild form that lasts only a few weeks to a more serious chronic form lasting years. Sometimes chronic HBV leads to serious complications such as cirrhosis or liver cancer. Some of the various stages or forms of hepatitis B include:

  • Acute infection — presence of typical signs and symptoms with a positive screening test
  • Chronic infection — persistent infection with the virus detected by laboratory tests accompanied by inflammation of the liver
  • Carrier (inactive) state — persistent infection but no liver inflammation (a carrier is someone who may appear to be in good health but harbors the virus and can potentially infect others)
  • "Cleared" infection — no longer has any evidence of infection; viral antigen and DNA tests are negative and no signs or symptoms of liver inflammation (although, in many cases, the virus is present in an inactive state in the liver)
  • Reactivation — return of HBV infection with liver damage in a person who was a carrier or who had "cleared" infection; this most commonly occurs in persons treated with chemotherapy for cancer or with drugs that suppress the immune system used to treat autoimmune diseasesor following an organ transplant.

Though a potentially serious infection, acute HBV infection usually resolves on its own in most adults. Infants and children tend to develop a chronic infection more often than adults. Approximately 90% of infants infected with HBV will develop a chronic condition. For children between the ages of one and five, the risk of developing chronic hepatitis drops to between 25% and 50%. Over the age of five, only 6% to 10% of HBV infections become chronic.

The vast majority of those with chronic infections will have no symptoms. For acute infections, the symptoms are very similar to those of other types of acute hepatitis. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. With acute hepatitis, the liver is damaged and is not able to function normally. It may not process toxins or waste products such as bilirubin for their removal from the body. During the course of disease, bilirubin and liver enzyme levels in the blood may increase. While tests such as bilirubin or a liver panel can tell a health practitioner that someone has hepatitis, they will not indicate what is causing it. Tests that detect infection with a hepatitis virus may help determine the cause.

Hepatitis B testing can be used to screen for infection in the absence of symptoms, to determine whether infection is acute or chronic, or to monitor a chronic infection and the effectiveness of treatment. Initial testing may include the following, often performed together as a panel of tests:

  • Hepatitis B surface antigen
  • Hepatitis B surface antibody
  • Total hepatitis B core antibody (IgM and IgG)

Additional or follow-up testing may include:

  • IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen
  • Hepatitis B e-antigen
  • Anti-hepatitis B e antibody
  • Hepatitis B viral DNA
  • Hepatitis B genotyping

Two tests, hepatitis B surface Ag and hepatitis B core antibody, IgM, may be performed as part of an acute viral hepatitis panel.



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The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene is responsible for producing HER2 proteins. HER2 proteins are receptors that are present on some breast cancer cells. When they’re activated, these receptors signal breast cancer cells to divide and multiply. Normally, HER2 receptors regulate and control the growth of breast cells, keeping them at a healthy level.

However, the HER2 gene is overexpressed in about one in every five cases of breast cancer. This means that instead of having one copy of the gene from each parent, you have multiple HER2 genes. When this occurs, it’s known as HER2 gene amplification

These additional genes then make too many HER2 receptors. This is known as HER2 protein receptor overexpression. Too many genes and too many receptors cause breast cells to grow and divide in an uncontrolled manner. This can lead to aggressive tumor growth.


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Herpes simplex virus or HSV (family Herpesviridae) is a transmittable and infectous virus usually triggered by two strains of the herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 normally affects the mouth and lips in the form of cold sores, whereas HSV-2 is more common and usually perceptible in the genital and anal area. HSV is very easily transmittable and infectous and is transmitted through contact with an infected person who produces it and sheds the virus. It could spread by direct contact with sores or occassionally by contact with the oral and genital areas of people with chronic HSV infection, who are between episodes of sores.Contamination with the herpes virus is classified by clearly distinguished disorders based on where the infection is like infection of the face, throat, and mouth, hands, eye, the central nervous system, brain, buttocks or anal area and the genitals. Ressurection of a latent oral or genital HSV contamination could set off by a fever, menstruation, emotional stress, or suppression of the immune system (for example, by a drug taken to prevent rejection of an organ transplant). An episode of the HSV infection could break out after physical trauma, like a dental procedure or overexposure of the lips to sunlight. Often, the set off is unknown. Once infected, the virus remains in the body for life and can keep recurring.


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Histamine is an important neurotransmitter and immune messenger molecule.  It is involved in processes involving hydrochloric acid secretion for digestion, triaging water reserves to key areas of the body and the inflammatory response One of the major effects of histamine is causing the blood vessels to swell and dilate.  When the body senses that it is threatened it will secrete higher amounts of histamine.   This allows the white blood cells to quickly move through the blood stream and find the potential threat or infection.  This is an important component to a healthy immune response. 

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Histones are proteins present in the nucleus. The genetic material, chromatin, is wrapped around histones. Anti-histone antibodies are a type of antinuclear antibodies, which are autoimmune antibodies. The production of anti-histone antibodies can be stimulated by certain drugs such as isoniazid, quinidine, anticonvulsants, thyroid medications and hydralazine. This may lead to an autoimmune disorder called drug induced lupus erythematous. The test for anti-histone antibodies is used to distinguish this form of lupus from systemic lupus erythematous. 


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Infection with Histoplasma capsulatum occurs commonly in areas in the Midwestern United States and Central America, but symptomatic disease requiring medical care is manifest in very few patients. The extent of disease depends on the number of conidia inhaled and the function of the host's cellular immune system. Pulmonary infection is the primary manifestation of histoplasmosis, varying from mild pneumonitis to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. In those with emphysema, a chronic progressive form of histoplasmosis can ensue. Dissemination of H. capsulatum within macrophages is common and becomes symptomatic primarily in patients with defects in cellular immunity. The spectrum of disseminated infection includes acute, severe, life-threatening sepsis and chronic, slowly progressive infection. Diagnostic accuracy has improved greatly with the use of an assay for Histoplasma antigen in the urine; serology remains useful for certain forms of histoplasmosis, and culture is the ultimate confirming diagnostic test. Classically, histoplasmosis has been treated with long courses of amphotericin B. Today, amphotericin B is rarely used except for severe infection and then only for a few weeks, followed by azole therapy. Itraconazole is the azole of choice following initial amphotericin B treatment and for primary treatment of mild to moderate histoplasmosis.


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As part of your HIV care, your provider will order several laboratory tests. The results of these lab tests, along with your physical exam and other information you provide, will help you and your provider work together to develop the best plan to manage your HIV care so that you can get the virus under control, protect your health, and reduce the chance that you will pass the virus to others.Your healthcare provider will repeat some of these tests as part of your ongoing HIV care to continue to assess your health and how well your HIV treatment is working.


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Human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) is a protein located on the surface of your white blood cells. An HLA-B27 test is a blood test that identifies HLA-B27 proteins.Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are proteins commonly found on white blood cells. These antigens help your immune system identify the differences between healthy body tissue and foreign substances that may cause infection

Although most HLAs protect your body from harm, HLA-B27 is a specific type of protein that contributes to immune system dysfunction. The presence of HLA-B27 on your white blood cells can cause your immune system to attack those otherwise healthy cells. When this occurs, it can result in an autoimmune disease or immune-mediated disease, such as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.


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The HLA gene products can be grouped into three classes. Class I consists of the products of the genes located on the HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C loci. These HLA antigens are found on all nucleated cells. Class II molecules consist of antigens inherited as genes from the HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP loci. These HLA antigens are normally found only on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, and activated T-lymphocytes. Class III molecules are not evaluated in histocompatibility testing.Because the HLA loci are closely linked, the HLA antigens are inherited as a group of six antigens is called a haplotype. The probability of siblings having identical haplotypes is one in four. Therefore, siblings provide the opportunity for the best matches. They can donate bone marrow, a kidney, and a section of their livers, but they cannot donate other solid organs. Approximately 85% of transplants are organs from cadavers, and because the HLA antigens are so highly polymorphic, the chance of identical haplotypes decreases quickly.

Histocompatibility testing consists of three tests, HLA antigen typing (tissue typing), screening of the recipient for anti-HLA antibodies (antibody screen), and the lymphocyte crossmatch (compatibility test). HLA antigen typing may be performed by serological or DNA methodsA laboratory will perform HLA typing by either the serological (blood fluid) or DNA method. In either case, HLA typing of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLADQ antigens is performed for solid organ transplants. HLA typing of HLA-C antigens is also included when tissue typing is performed for bone marrow transplantsThe antibody screen is performed in order to detect antibodies in the recipient's serum that react with HLA antigens. The most commonly used method of HLA antibody screening is the microcytotoxicity test. If an antibody against an HLA antigen is present, it will bind to the cells. The higher the number of different HLA antibodies, the lower the probability of finding a compatible matchThe third component of a histocompatibility study is the crossmatch test. In this test peripheral blood lymphocytes from the donor are separated into B and T lymphocyte populations. In the crossmatch, serum from the recipient is mixed with T-cells or B-cells from the donor. A positive finding indicates the presence of preformed antibodies in the recipient that are reactive against the donor tissues. An incompatible T-cell crossmatch contraindicates transplantation of a tissue from the T-cell donor.


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Homocysteine is an amino acid that is produced by the body by chemically altering adenosine. Amino acids are naturally made products, which are the building blocks of all the proteins in the body. In 1969, Dr. Kilmer S. McCully reported that children born with a genetic disorder called homocystinuria, which causes the homocysteine levels to be very high, sometimes died at a very young age with advanced atherosclerosis in their arteries. Homocysteine levels in the blood may be elevated for many reasons. More specifically, these reasons can be divided into severe genetic causes and other milder causes.


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This test looks for antibodies which the body develops in response to infection with the Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV).  HTLV infects white blood cells which are important to the body’s immune system.  HTLV infection can be responsible for the development of a number of conditions including Leukemia, Lymphoma, and nervous system disorders.  The HTLV 1&2 Abs test detects and differentiates both type 1 and type 2 HTLV infections. An estimated 15-20 million people worldwide suffer from HTLV infections.  HTLV is typically spread through sexual contact and exposure to infected blood, especially through intravenous drug use.  Infected mothers can spread the infection to their infants during pregnancy or breast feeding.  After infection, HTLV will remain in the body for life.  Some people will develop HTLV related illnesses months or years after their initial exposure.  Most HTLV infections show no symptoms.  An infected person can spread the virus to others even if they are asymptomatic. 


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Despite the morbidity associated with anogenital condylomas and the mortality associated with anal, penile, and cervical carcinoma as a direct consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently does not recommend routine screening for HPV in immuno competent men. However, findings of emerging research focusing on the high-risk populations of men who have sex with men and men who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus, in whom HPV infection is pervasive and persistent, suggest that these populations may benefit from screening. Therefore, HPV screening, including anal cytology, should be considered for these men in settings where appropriate follow-up, including high-resolution anoscopy, is available.

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There are several serological tests used to diagnose Hydatiddisease.Routine tests include indirect hemagglutination (IHA)andImmunoelectrophoresis (IEP). The sensitivity of IHA in calcified or lunglesions is 60%, and 88% in peritoneal or liver disease, with a specificityof 90-95% (1-2).IEP is regarded as an highly specific test, but crossreactivity could be with other infections such as Taenia SoliumCysticercosis )or rarely in liver cirrhosis or cancer (cross reactivitywith P1 antigen)(3).Our practice is to combine the tests, because of itslow sensitivity. IEP test will be positive for Antigen 5 (arc 5)usualywith a titer of 1:512 in IHA test. Inlower titer, IEP will be positiveonly in 13% of patients (3).Recently, more advanced serological tests are used. ELISA test withsensitivity and specificity of 84% and 96.6% respectively,or Westernblotting (IB-Immunoblot). There are several diagnostic antigens in IBtest. The first antigen was of 8 kDa , with a described sensitivity andspecificity of 91% and 100% respectively (4). Since this report, manyother antigens were described using the IB test. Basicly, the two majorantigens are the thermolabile Antigen A ( antigen 5)which is composed oftwo subunits of 38-40 and 20 kDa, and the thermostable Antigen B whichis composed of 3 antigens of 8-12, 16 and 23-24 kDa (5). The cellularImuune response can also be tested by a lymphoproliferative assay (blasttransformation) which is a very sensitive test used to diagnose thedisease in seronegative patients (5).


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There’s no doubt about it, we all want a luxurious, full head of hair. Although hair loss is most commonly associated with men, women also suffer from this problem — and sadly hair loss in women is a lot less acceptable in society today. According to the American Hair Loss Association, women actually make up 40 percent of American hair loss sufferers. Such a common problem among both and women, it’s unsurprising that so many people look for hair loss remedies far and wide.

Have you noticed more hair in your brush lately than you used to see, or is you hair falling out in clumps? Do you look in the mirror and see scalp where you used to see only hair? Losing anywhere from 50 to 150 hairs per day is considered normal, but when you start losing more than that it becomes problematic, not to mention visibly noticeable. What’s really behind your hair loss, and how can you treat the cause, not just the symptoms, with effective hair loss remedies?

It’s common for hair loss sufferers to turn to hair replacement surgery and topical hair loss products in hopes of regaining their full heads of hair — or at least some of what once was. But is that the best course of action to take with hair loss? When it comes to any problem, the first step is to find the root cause. Let’s talk about the real causes of hair loss and what you can start doing today to naturally stop and hopefully reverse your hair loss. For starters there are many foods and vitamins for hair growth that won’t break the bank but can really make a difference. There also many other natural hair loss remedies like rosemary essential oil that have been shown to work as well as conventional topical products.

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Hair loss is the thinning of hair on the scalp. The medical term for hair loss is alopecia. Alopecia can be temporary or permanent. The most common form of hair loss occurs gradually and is referred to as "androgenetic alopecia," meaning that a combination of hormones (androgens are male hormones) and heredity (genetics) is needed to develop the condition. Other types of hair loss include alopecia areata (patches of baldness that usually grow back), telogen effluvium (rapid shedding after childbirth, fever, or sudden weight loss); and traction alopecia (thinning from tight braids or ponytails).

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Experiencing pain around your fingernails is usually a sign of irritation or infection. Swelling and redness around your fingernail may be caused by an infected hangnail.

A hangnail is a piece of skin near the root of the nail that appears jagged and torn. Hangnails generally appear on the fingers and not on the toes, though it’s possible to have one around a toenail.

A hangnail isn’t the same condition as an infected or ingrown nail. A hangnail only refers to the skin along the sides of the nail, not the nail itself.

Hangnails are common. Most people experience hangnails when their skin is dry, such as in the winter or after being exposed to water for a prolonged period. A hangnail can become infected if exposed to bacteria or fungus.

Infected hangnails should be treated as soon as possible. Oftentimes, the condition can be successfully treated at home. If the hangnail doesn’t clear up within a week, you should consult your doctor.

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Hangovers can occur at any time of day, but are usually more common in the morning directly after a night of heavy drinking.

As well as physical symptoms, the person may experience elevated levels of anxiety, regret, shame, embarrassment, and depression. The severity of a hangover is closely linked to how much alcohol was consumed, and whether the sufferer had enough sleep; the less sleep, the worse the hangover.

It is impossible really to say how much alcohol can be safely consumed to avoid a hangover - it depends on the individual and other factors, such as how tired they were before they began drinking, whether they were already dehydrated before the drinking began, whether they drank plenty of water during their drinking session, and how much sleep they got afterward.

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Hay fever affects up to 30% of all people worldwide, including up to 10% of U.S. children under 17 years of age and 7.8% of U.S. adults. The medical cost of allergic rhinitis is approximately $3.4 billion, mostly due to the cost of prescription medications. These figures are probably an underestimate because many of those affected may attribute their discomfort to a chronic cold. Although childhood hay fever tends to be more common, this condition can occur at any age and usually occurs after years of repeated inhalation of allergic substances. The incidence of allergic disease has dramatically increased in the U.S. and other developed countries over recent decades.

"Hay fever" is a misnomer. Hay is not a usual cause of this problem, and it does not cause fever. Early descriptions of sneezing, nasal congestion, and eye irritation while harvesting field hay promoted this popular term. Allergic rhinitis is the correct term used to describe this allergic reaction, and many different substances cause the allergic symptoms noted in hay fever. Rhinitis means "inflammation of the nose" and is a derivative of rhino, meaning nose. Allergic rhinitis that occurs during a specific season is called "seasonal allergic rhinitis." When it occurs throughout the year, it is called "perennial allergic rhinitis." Rhinosinusitis is the medical term that refers to inflammation of the nasal lining as well as the lining tissues of the sinuses. This term is sometimes used because the two conditions frequently occur together.

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Head lice are parasites that are found on human heads. The word lice is plural for louse.

Head lice are spread by personal contact or the sharing of combs, brushes, caps, and other clothing.

Head lice are a common problem with preschool and schoolchildren.

Head lice cause a tickling feeling of something moving in the hair, itching, and sores on the head.

The affected individual, family members also infected, and the home all should be treated.

Remember: one head louse + one head louse = two head lice = the beginning of a head-lice infection.

Very young children should be evaluated by a health-care professional before beginning medications.

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Hearing loss is when your ability to hear is reduced. A hearing loss makes it more difficult for you to hear speech and other sounds.

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Don’t wait to get help if you experience any of these heart attack warning signs. Although some heart attacks are sudden and intense, most start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort. Pay attention to your body .


Chest discomfort. Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or that goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain.

Discomfort in other areas of the upper body. Symptoms can include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw or stomach.

Shortness of breath with or without chest discomfort.

Other signs may include breaking out in a cold sweat, nausea or lightheadedness.

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Heart disease, such as coronary heart disease, heart attack, congestive heart failure, and congenital heart disease, is the leading cause of death for men and women in the U.S. Prevention includes quitting smoking, lowering cholesterol, controlling high blood pressure, maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising.

 

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A heart transplant is an operation in which a failing, diseased heart is replaced with a healthier, donor heart. Heart transplant is a treatment that's usually reserved for people who have tried medications or other surgeries, but their conditions haven't sufficiently improved.

While a heart transplant is a major operation, your chance of survival is good, with appropriate follow-up care.

When faced with a decision about having a heart transplant, know what to expect of the heart transplant process, the surgery itself, potential risks and follow-up care.

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Your heart is an amazing organ. It continuously pumps oxygen and nutrient-rich blood throughout your body to sustain life. This fist-sized powerhouse beats (expands and contracts) 100,000 times per day, pumping five or six quarts of blood each minute, or about 2,000 gallons per day.

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Heartburn is a sensation of burning in the chest caused by stomach acid backing up into the esophagus (food pipe). The burning is usually in the upper and central part of the chest, just behind the sternum (breast bone). The burning can worsen or can be brought on by lying flat or on the right side. Pregnancy tends to aggravate heartburn.

Many people experience heartburn and there are a large number of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and home remedies available to treat heartburn or the symptoms of heartburn.


In most cases you will not need to see a health-care professional, except if the symptoms are frequent (several times a week) or severe.


If heartburn is severe or the pain is accompanied with additional symptoms such as shortness of breath, radiation into your arms or neck, you will need to see a doctor to distinguish these symptoms from more serious medical conditions such as a heart attack.

GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease) is a chronic and more serious form of heartburn.

If your heartburn symptoms occur more than twice a week you should see your health-care professional to make sure no serious problems are present.

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Heatstroke is a condition caused by your body overheating, usually as a result of prolonged exposure to or physical exertion in high temperatures. This most serious form of heat injury, heatstroke, can occur if your body temperature rises to 104 F (40 C) or higher. The condition is most common in the summer months.


Heatstroke requires emergency treatment. Untreated heatstroke can quickly damage your brain, heart, kidneys and muscles. The damage worsens the longer treatment is delayed, increasing your risk of serious complications or death.

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heel spur is a pointed bony outgrowth of the bone of the heel (the calcaneus bone). They are attributed to chronic local inflammation at the insertion of soft-tissue tendons or fascia in the area. Heel spurs can be located at the back of the heel or under the heel, beneath the sole of the foot. Heel spurs at the back of the heel are frequently associated with inflammation of the Achilles tendon (tendinitis) and cause tenderness and pain at the back of the heel made worse while pushing off the ball of the foot.

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Hereditary hemochromatosis (he-moe-kroe-muh-TOE-sis) causes your body to absorb too much iron from the food you eat. Excess iron is stored in your organs, especially your liver, heart and pancreas. Too much iron can lead to life-threatening conditions, such as liver disease, heart problems and diabetes.


The genes that cause hemochromatosis are inherited, but only a minority of people who have the genes ever develop serious problems. Signs and symptoms of hereditary hemochromatosis usually appear in midlife.


Treatment includes regularly removing blood from your body. Because much of the body's iron is contained in red blood cells, this treatment lowers iron levels.

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The oxygen-carrying pigment and predominant protein in the red blood cells. Hemoglobin forms an unstable, reversible bond with oxygen. In its oxygenated state it is called oxyhemoglobin and is bright red. In the reduced state it is called deoxyhemoglobin and is purple-blue.


Each hemoglobin molecule is made up of four heme groups surrounding a globin group. Heme contains iron and gives a red color to the molecule. Globin consists of two linked pairs of polypeptide chains. The development of each chain is controlled at a separate genetic locus. Changes in the amino acid sequence of these chains results in abnormal hemoglobins. For example, hemoglobin S is found in sickle-cell disease, a severe type of anemia in which the red cells become sickle-shaped when oxygen is in short supply.


When red blood cells die, the hemoglobin within them is released and broken up: the iron in hemoglobin is salvaged, transported to the bone marrow by a protein called transferrin and used again in the production of new red blood cells; the remainder of the hemoglobin becomes a chemical called bilirubin that is excreted into the bile which is secreted into the intestine, where it gives the feces their characteristic yellow-brown color.

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Hemorrhoids (Piles) are blood vessels located in the smooth muscles of the walls of the rectum and anus. They are a normal part of the anatomy and are located at the junction where small arteries merge into veins. They are cushioned by smooth muscles and connective tissue and are classified by where they are located in relationship to the pectinate line, the dividing point between the upper 2/3 and lower 1/3 of the anus. This is an important anatomic distinction because of the type of cells that line the hemorrhoid, and the nerves that provide sensation.

Internal hemorrhoids are located above the pectinate line and are covered with cells that are the same as those that line the rest of the intestines. External hemorrhoids arise below the line and are covered with cells that resemble skin.

Hemorrhoids become an issue only when they begin to swell, causing itching, pain and/or bleeding.

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This infection of the liver is caused by the hepatitis C virus. About 3.9 million people in the U.S. have the disease. But it causes few symptoms, so most of them don't know.


There are many forms of the hepatitis C virus. The most common in the U.S. is type 1. None is more serious than any other, but they respond differently to treatment.

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Herpes is an infection caused by HSV (herpes simplex virus). This virus affects the external genitalia, anal region, mucosal surfaces, and skin in other parts of the body.


Herpes is a long-term condition. However, many people never have symptoms even though they are carrying the virus.

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Any time an internal body part pushes into an area where it doesn't belong, it's called a hernia.

The hiatus is an opening in the diaphragm -- the muscular wall separating the chest cavity from the abdomen. Normally, the esophagus (food pipe) goes through the hiatus and attaches to the stomach. In a hiatal hernia (also called hiatus hernia) the stomach bulges up into the chest through that opening.

There are two main types of hiatal hernias: sliding and paraesophageal (next to the esophagus).

In a sliding hiatal hernia, the stomach and the section of the esophagus that joins the stomach slide up into the chest through the hiatus. This is the more common type of hernia.

 

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Hiccups are involuntary contractions of the diaphragm — the muscle that separates your chest from your abdomen and plays an important role in breathing. Each contraction is followed by a sudden closure of your vocal cords, which produces the characteristic "hic" sound.


Hiccups may result from a large meal, alcoholic or carbonated beverages or sudden excitement. In some cases, hiccups may be a sign of an underlying medical condition. For most people, a bout of hiccups usually lasts only a few minutes. Rarely, hiccups may persist for months. This can result in weight loss and exhaustion.

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There are many questions regarding safe s*x and the spread of STD, an infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. Confusion often arises around how exactly AIDS spreads, as it is often generalized to “bodily fluids.” However, this categorization is too broad when considering hickey and the risks for HIV. You cannot contract it from the exchange of saliva through kissing or giving or receiving hickey. Hickeys, or “love bites,” are bruises and do not break the skin, so there is not access to the bloodstream. Even if the skin were to break, HIV could not spread through saliva. To be infected with HIV, already infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions must enter your body.

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Hypertension, also known as high or raised blood pressure, is a condition in which the blood vessels have persistently raised pressure. Blood is carried from the heart to all parts of the body in the vessels. Each time the heart beats, it pumps blood into the vessels. Blood pressure is created by the force of blood pushing against the walls of blood vessels (arteries) as it is pumped by the heart. The higher the pressure in blood vessels the harder the heart has to work in order to pump blood. If left uncontrolled, hypertension can lead to a heart attack, an enlargement of the heart and eventually heart failure. Blood vessels may develop bulges (aneurysms) and weak spots due to high pressure, making them more likely to clog and burst. The pressure in the blood vessels can also cause blood to leak out into the brain. This can cause a stroke. Hypertension can also lead to kidney failure, blindness, rupture of blood vessels and cognitive impairment.

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is recorded as two numbers usually written one above the other. The upper number is the systolic blood pressure - the highest pressure in blood vessels when the heart contracts, or beats. The lower number is the diastolic blood pressure - the lowest pressure in blood vessels when the heart muscle relaxes. Normal adult blood pressure is defined as a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg and a diastolic blood pressure of 80 mm Hg.

Hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure equal to or above 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure equal to or above 90 mm Hg.

More than 1 in 5 adults worldwide have raised blood pressure – a condition that causes around half of all deaths from stroke and heart disease. Complications from hypertension account for 9.4 million deaths worldwide every year.

In nearly all high-income countries, widespread diagnosis and treatment with low-cost medication have led to a significant drop in the proportion of people with raised blood pressure as well as the average blood pressure across populations. This has contributed to a reduction in deaths from heart disease. For example, the prevalence of raised blood pressure in the WHO region of the Americas in 2014 was 18%, as compared to 31% in 1980.

In contrast, low-income countries have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure. In the WHO African region, more than 30% of adults in many countries are estimated to have high blood pressure. This proportion is increasing and the average blood pressure levels in this region are much higher than global averages.

Many people with high blood pressure in developing countries are not aware of their disease. Those who are diagnosed may not have access to treatment and may not be able to successfully control their illness over the long term. It contributes to the burden of heart disease, stroke and kidney failure and premature mortality and disability.

Detection, treatment and control of hypertension is an important health priority worldwide.

 

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Cholesterol is a type of fat (lipid) in your blood. Your cells need cholesterol, and your body makes all it needs. But you also get cholesterol from the food you eat.

If you have too much cholesterol, it starts to build up in your arteries. (Arteries are the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.) This is called hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis camera.gif. It is the starting point for some heart and blood flow problems. The buildup can narrow the arteries and make it harder for blood to flow through them. The buildup can also lead to dangerous blood clots and inflammation that can cause heart attacks and strokes.

There are different types of cholesterol.

LDL is the "bad" cholesterol. It's the kind that can raise your risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.
HDL is the "good" cholesterol. It's the kind that is linked to a lower risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.

 

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Hip pain is a common complaint that can be caused by a wide variety of problems. The precise location of your hip pain can provide valuable clues about the underlying cause.

Problems within the hip joint itself tend to result in pain on the inside of your hip or your groin. Hip pain on the outside of your hip, upper thigh or outer buttock is usually caused by problems with muscles, ligaments, tendons and other soft tissues that surround your hip joint.

Hip pain can sometimes be caused by diseases and conditions in other areas of your body, such as your lower back. This type of pain is called referred pain. 

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For many people -- particularly women -- hips and thighs are trouble spots. Efforts to achieve slim, trim thighs can seem futile, especially since exercise and diet won't necessarily reduce fat in the places you'd like. Though you target your stomach, the excess fat may come off your bottom, or vice versa. Still, dedication to exercise combined with good nutrition will trim fat throughout your body and help you tone all over, including your thigh

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HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, if not treated. Unlike some other viruses, the human body can’t get rid of HIV completely, even with treatment. So once you get HIV, you have it for life.

HIV attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells (T cells), which help the immune system fight off infections. Untreated, HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells (T cells) in the body, making the person more likely to get other infections or infection-related cancers. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease. These opportunistic infections or cancers take advantage of a very weak immune system and signal that the person has AIDS, the last stage of HIV infection.

No effective cure currently exists, but with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. The medicine used to treat HIV is called antiretroviral therapy or ART. If taken the right way, every day, this medicine can dramatically prolong the lives of many people infected with HIV, keep them healthy, and greatly lower their chance of infecting others. Before the introduction of ART in the mid-1990s, people with HIV could progress to AIDS in just a few years. Today, someone diagnosed with HIV and treated before the disease is far advanced can live nearly as long as someone who does not have HIV.

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Hives (medically known as urticaria) appear on the skin as wheals that are red, very itchy, smoothly elevated areas of skin often with a blanched center. They appear in varying shapes and sizes, from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter anywhere on the body.

It is estimated that 20% of all people will develop urticaria at some point in their lives. Hives are more common in women than in men. One hallmark of hives are their tendency to change size rapidly and to move around, disappearing in one place and reappearing in other places, often in a matter of hours. An individual hive usually lasts no longer than 24 hours. An outbreak that looks impressive, even alarming, first thing in the morning can be completely gone by noon, only to be back in full force later in the day. Very few skin diseases occur and then resolve so rapidly. Therefore, even if you have no evidence of hives to show the doctor when you get to the office for examination, the diagnosis can be established based upon the accurate recounting of your symptoms and signs. Because hives fluctuate so much and so fast, it is helpful to bring along a photograph of what the outbreak looked like at its most severe point.

Swelling deeper in the skin that may accompany hives is called angioedema. This swelling of the hands and feet, as well as the face (lips or eyelids), can be as dramatic as it is brief.

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Hoarseness is an abnormal change in the voice caused by a variety of conditions. The voice may have changes in pitch and volume, ranging from a deep, harsh voice to a weak, raspy voice.

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Hormonal imbalance occurs when normal levels and production of hormones in the endocrine system, or their ratio to other hormones, is disrupted. When it comes to hormonal imbalance, we tend to focus most on sex hormones related to pregnancy, periods and menopause.

But you have many types of hormones and they control many other functions including metabolism and weight, thyroid function, sleep cycles and your body’s response to stress. Even though all your hormones together form the foundation of your health.

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Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance found in the cell membrane and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals.

Our body needs cholesterol to a certain level to work properly, but if excess of cholesterol enters blood, it can make sticky deposits to the walls of the arteries leading to its narrowing and blockage.

High cholesterol shoots up the risk of getting various cardiovascular diseases such as Atherosclerosis, Cardiac Arrest, Stroke, Heart Attack, etc.

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Hyperpigmentation is the production of excess melanin causing dark spots on the skin. Age spots, liver spots, freckles, sun spots, pregnancy mask are all types of hyperpigmentation and there are several treatments available to reduce or remove the darker skin.

Hyperpigmentation refers to areas of skin where an excess of melanin has been produced and formed deposits, causing skin patches that appear darker than the surrounding skin.


Common skin areas that experience hyperpigmentation or dyschromia are the face, arms, and hands.  Age spots, liver spots, freckles, sun spots, melasma, and any typical dark or brown spots in the skin are examples of hyperpigmentation. 

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Hypertension is another name for high blood pressure. It can lead to severe complications and increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and death.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels. The pressure depends on the work being done by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.

Medical guidelines define hypertension as a blood pressure higher than 130 over 80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg), according to guidelines issued by the American Heart Association (AHA) in November 2017.

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Hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid disease, means your thyroid gland makes and releases too much thyroid hormone. The thyroid gland is located in the front of your neck, just below your Adam’s apple. It makes hormones that control your metabolism. Metabolism is the pace of your body’s processes and includes things like your heart rate and how quickly you burn calories.


Hyperthyroidism can affect your metabolism. It can also cause nervousness, increased perspiration (sweatiness), rapid heartbeat, hand tremors, difficulty sleeping and weight loss.

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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid disease, is a common disorder. With hypothyroidism, your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.


The thyroid gland is located in the front lower part of your neck. Hormones released by the gland travel through your bloodstream and affect nearly every part of your body, from your heart and brain, to your muscles and skin.


Thyroid


The thyroid controls how your body's cells use energy from food, a process called metabolism. Among other things, your metabolism affects your body’s temperature, your heartbeat, and how well you burn calories. If you don't have enough thyroid hormone, your body processes slow down. That means your body makes less energy, and your metabolism becomes sluggish.

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One of the most often heard homeopathic mantras is “Homeopathy treats the person, not the disease”.

But what does this really mean?

From a medical standpoint, a disease diagnosis is key, because drugs are prescribed to target a particular disease condition – for example, Prilosec for heartburn, Fosamax for osteoporosis, and Ritalin for ADHD.

From a homeopathic standpoint, the disease name is not important. Homeopathy triggers the body’s own healing mechanism and homeopathic remedies are prescribed based on the overall symptom picture.

In an acute case – such as flu, gastroenteritis, or an injury – this picture would include such variables as:

–   Energy level – are you more or less tired than usual? Is it worse at any particular time of day?

–   Changes in emotional state – are you more weepy, restless, or angry?

–   Pace of the illness – did it come on quickly, did it progress rapidly or slowly?

– Any unusual symptoms – e.g. a fever with no thirst, hunger with no desire to eat  (These are the most important symptoms for a homeopath, as they help to individualize the case and guide to the best remedy)

An example of this is a case of the flu.

A medical doctor will elicit the common symptoms, such as aching limbs, chills, cough, sore throat, runny nose and fatigue, and the prescription will be the same for every patient.

a homeopath will take these symptoms too. but will also want to know how your flu is different from everyone else’s.

So you could have a situation where two members of the same family have contracted the same virus, but one may have felt it coming on for several days, with chilliness, irritability and fatigue, while the other experienced a rapid onset of symptoms with a high temperature, perspiration, restlessness and anxiety.  Although the medical diagnosis would be the same, the manifestation of the virus is quite different, and each person would require a different homeopathic remedy.

This is the beauty of homeopathy – that it is unique and personalized for each individual and for each case of illness – but the down side is that homeopathy is not one-size-fits-all, which makes it more complex to practice and not compatible with the double blind trials so popular in the validation of  traditional medicine.


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The herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes cold sores. HSV-1 and HSV-2 are highly contagious viruses that can be transmitted easily as a result of close contact.After entering the body, the virus remains inactive most of the time, but, if a trigger activates the virus, a cold sore can develop.One person may have just one outbreak and no recurrence, while others may have two or three outbreaks each year.Some people may carry the virus and never have an outbreak because it remains dormantInfection with HSV-2 may result from oral sex acts with a person who has genital herpes.


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A hematocrit test is a type of blood test. Your blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. These cells and platelets are suspended in a liquid called plasma. A hematocrit test measures how much of your blood is made up of red blood cells. Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin that carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. Hematocrit levels that are too high or too low can indicate a blood disorderdehydration, or other medical conditions.

Other names: HCT, packed cell volume, PCV, Crit; Packed Cell Volume, PCV; H and H (Hemoglobin and Hematocrit)

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A hemoglobin test measures the levels of hemoglobin in your blood. Hemoglobin is a protein in your red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. If your hemoglobin levels are abnormal, it may be a sign that you have a blood disorder.

Other names: Hb, Hgb

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Hepatitis is a type of liver disease. Viruses called hepatitis Ahepatitis B, and hepatitis C are the most common causes of hepatitis. A hepatitis panel is a blood test that checks to see if you have a hepatitis infection caused by one of these viruses.

The viruses are spread in different ways and cause different symptoms:

  • Hepatitis A is most often spread by contact with contaminated feces (stool) or by eating tainted food. Though uncommon, it can also be spread through sexual contact with an infected person. Most people recover from hepatitis A without any lasting liver damage.
  • Hepatitis B is spread through contact with infected blood, semen, or other bodily fluids. Some people recover quickly from a hepatitis B infection. For others, the virus can cause long-term, chronic liver disease.
  • Hepatitis C is most often spread by contact with infected blood, usually through sharing of hypodermic needles. Though uncommon, it can also be spread through sexual contact with an infected person. Many people with hepatitis C develop chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.

A hepatitis panel includes tests for hepatitis antibodies and antigens. Antibodies are proteins that the immune system produces to help fight infections. Antigens are substances that cause an immune response. Antibodies and antigens can be detected before symptoms appear.

Other names: acute hepatitis panel, viral hepatitis panel, hepatitis screening panel

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The life-center of the body, the heart is the hardest working muscle in our bodies, responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. Just like any other muscle, it can be subject to fatigue, especially if it has been weakened by a number of cardiovascular diseases.

When damaged enough, a patient's only option may be a heart transplant. This usually follows conditions such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy or weakening of the heart muscle.



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Regular health exams and tests can help find problems before they start. They also can help find problems early, when your chances for treatment and cure are better. Which exams and screenings you need depends on your age, health and family history, and lifestyle choices such as what you eat, how active you are, and whether you smoke.


To make the most of your next check-up, here are some things to do before you go:

Review your family health history

Find out if you are due for any general screenings or vaccinations

Write down a list of issues and questions to take with you


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The "murmur" is the sound of blood flowing. It may be passing through a problem heart valve, for instance. Or it may be that a condition makes your heart beat faster and forces your heart to handle more blood quicker than normal.

Most are innocent and don't require any treatment.

But there are exceptions. Murmurs can be linked to a damaged or overworked heart valve. Some people are born with valve problems. Others get them as a part of aging or from other heart problems.

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Palpitations make you feel like your heart is beating too hard or too fast, skipping a beat, or fluttering. You may notice heart palpitations in your chest, throat, or neck.

They can be bothersome or frightening. They usually aren't serious or harmful, though, and often go away on their own. Most of the time, they're caused by stress and anxiety, or because you’ve had too much caffeine, nicotine, or alcohol. They can also happen when you’re pregnant.

In rare cases, palpitations can be a sign of a more serious heart condition. So, if you have heart palpitations, see your doctor. Get immediate medical attention if they come with:

Shortness of breath

Dizziness

Chest pain

Fainting

After your doctor takes your medical history and looks you over, he may order tests to find the cause. If he finds one, the right treatment can reduce or get rid of the palpitations.

If there’s no underlying cause, lifestyle changes can help, including stress management.

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Hepatitis B is a virus that infects the liver camera.gif. Most adults who get it have it for a short time and then get better. This is called acute hepatitis B.


Sometimes the virus causes a long-term infection, called chronic hepatitis B. Over time, it can damage your liver. Babies and young children infected with the virus are more likely to get chronic hepatitis B.


You can have hepatitis B and not know it. You may not have symptoms. If you do, they can make you feel like you have the flu. But as long as you have the virus, you can spread it to others.


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Hemochromatosis is a disease in which too much iron builds up in your body. Your body needs iron but too much of it is toxic. If you have hemochromatosis, you absorb more iron than you need. Your body has no natural way to get rid of the extra iron. It stores it in body tissues, especially the liver, heart, and pancreas. The extra iron can damage your organs. Without treatment, it can cause your organs to fail.There are two types of hemochromatosis. Primary hemochromatosis is an inherited disease. Secondary hemochromatosis is usually the result of something else, such as anemia, thalassemia, liver disease, or blood transfusions.

Many symptoms of hemochromatosis are similar to those of other diseases. Not everyone has symptoms. If you do, you may have joint pain, fatigue, general weakness, weight loss, and stomach pain.Your doctor will diagnose hemochromatosis based on your medical and family histories, a physical exam, and the results from tests and procedures. Treatments include removing blood (and iron) from your body, medicines, and changes in your diet.

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Natural" hormone creams may help relieve hot flashes, night sweats, depression, and other symptoms of menopause, a new study suggests.As an added benefit, they may also improve heart health, researchers say.The researchers studied custom-compounded creams made from plant-derived hormones that are biochemically similar to those produced by the body. A preparation contains one or more various hormones in different amounts to meet each woman's individualized needs.Custom-compounded hormones have been gaining favor ever since a large government-funded study known as the Women's Health Initiative linked the long-term use of conventional hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and breast cancer.But there have been few well designed studies showing the custom-compounded hormone preparations actually work.The new research suggests that these compounds "can make remarkable changes in a woman's life," says Kenna Stephenson, MD, of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler.


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HRT, also known as hormone therapy (HT) or menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), is medication containing the hormones that a woman’s body stops producing after menopause. HRT is used to treat menopausal symptoms.

While HRT reduces the likelihood of some debilitating diseases such as osteoporosis, colorectal (bowel) cancer and heart disease, it may increase the chances of developing a blood clot (when given in tablet form) or breast cancer (when some types are used long-term).

‘Premature menopause’ is when the final menstrual period occurs before a woman is 40. ‘Early menopause’ is when the final menstrual period occurs before a woman is 45. For women who experience premature or early menopause, HRT is strongly recommended until the average age of menopause (around 51 years), unless there is a particular reason for a woman not to take it.

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Women frequently ask what symptoms they can anticipate during menopause. In reality, each woman experiences menopause differently. Some women have changes in several areas of their lives. It is not always possible to tell if these changes are related to aging, menopause or both. While one woman is certain that insomnia is a menopause symptom for her, another feels joint aches are her primary menopause symptom. Doctors find it difficult to communicate to their patients about menopause and what could be a host of uncomfortable symptoms. For example, medical science cannot explain how declining hormone levels during menopause could cause joint pain. Menopause is not an illness, but a natural transition when a woman's reproductive ability ends. Yet many of the menopausal symptoms may mimic signs caused by diseases. When do women undergoing menopause need treatment in the first place? The same pattern of hot flashes in two women can have a very different psychological impact. For one woman, they can greatly disturb her daily functioning, while another may hardly be bothered.


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