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Most adults have 32 teeth, including 4 wisdom teeth that usually emerge between the ages of 17 and 21.

This final set of molars can play a useful part in the mouth for many people.

However, for others, if they don’t come through properly or don’t emerge at all, they may need to be removed.

Having wisdom teeth out is one of the most common dental procedures in the UK.


Wisdom Teeth


Wisdom teeth present potential problems when they are misaligned as they can position themselves horizontally, be angled toward or away from the second molars or be angled inward or outward. Poor alignment of wisdom teeth can crowd or damage adjacent teeth, the jawbone, and nerves. Wisdom teeth that lean toward the second molars make those teeth more vulnerable to decay by entrapping plaque and debris.


In addition, wisdom teeth can be entrapped completely within the soft tissue and/or the jawbone or only partially break through, or erupt, through the gum.


Teeth that remain partially or completely entrapped within the soft tissue or the jawbone are called impacted. Wisdom teeth that only partially erupt allow an opening for bacteria to enter around the tooth and cause an infection, which results in pain, swelling, jaw stiffness, and general illness. Partially erupted teeth are also more prone to tooth decay and gum disease because their hard-to-reach location and awkward positioning makes brushing and flossing difficult.

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Ichthyosis (ick-thee-OH-sis) is a group of skin diseases that causes extremely dry, thick, and scaly skin. The skin often looks like it has fish scales.


There are more than 20 different types of ichthyosis. The most common type is ichthyosis vulgaris (vul-GAR-ris). About 95% of people who develop ichthyosis get this type.


The other types are rare and include harlequin ichthyosis, lamellar type, and x-linked ichthyosis.

Of all the types, ichthyosis vulgaris is the mildest. It often begins in childhood.

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Impetigo (im-puh-TIE-go) is a common and highly contagious skin infection that mainly affects infants and children. Impetigo usually appears as red sores on the face, especially around a child's nose and mouth, and on hands and feet. The sores burst and develop honey-colored crusts.


Treatment with antibiotics is generally recommended to help prevent the spread of impetigo to others. It's important to keep your child home from school or day care until he or she is no longer contagious — usually 24 hours after you begin antibiotic treatment.

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An incompetent cervix, also called a cervical insufficiency, is a condition that occurs when weak cervical tissue causes or contributes to premature birth or the loss of an otherwise healthy pregnancy.


Before pregnancy, your cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina — is normally closed and rigid. As pregnancy progresses and you prepare to give birth, the cervix gradually softens, decreases in length (effaces) and opens (dilates). If you have an incompetent cervix, your cervix might begin to open too soon — causing you to give birth too early.


An incompetent cervix can be difficult to diagnose and, as a result, treat. If your cervix begins to open early, your health care provider might recommend preventive medication during pregnancy, frequent ultrasounds or a procedure that closes the cervix with strong sutures (cervical cerclage).

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Jaundice is particularly common in premature babies - boys more often than girls. It usually appears within the baby's first week of life.


In an otherwise healthy baby born at full term, infant jaundice is rarely a cause for alarm; it tends to go away on its own. However, if treatment is necessary, infants tend to respond to non-invasive therapy.


In rare cases, untreated infant jaundice may lead to brain damage and even death.

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Infant reflux occurs when food backs up (refluxes) from a baby's stomach, causing the baby to spit up. Sometimes called gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the condition is rarely serious and becomes less common as a baby gets older. It's unusual for infant reflux to continue after age 18 months.


Reflux occurs in healthy infants multiple times a day. As long as your baby is healthy, content and growing well, the reflux is not a cause for concern.


Rarely, infant reflux can be a sign of a medical problem, such as an allergy, a blockage in the digestive system or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

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Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living things that are found everywhere - in air, soil and water. You can get infected by touching, eating, drinking or breathing something that contains a germ. Germs can also spread through animal and insect bites, kissing and sexual contact. Vaccines, proper hand washing and medicines can help prevent infections.

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You can also catch flu by touching an infected person, for instance, shaking hands. Adults are contagious 1-2 days before getting symptoms and up to 7 days after becoming ill. This means that you can spread the influenza virus before you even know you are infected.


In this article, we explain the symptoms of flu, how it is treated, how it differs from a cold, and the best ways to prevent flu occurring.

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Ingrown toenails occur when the edges or corners of your nails grow into the skin next to the nail. Your big toe is most likely to get an ingrown toenail.


You can treat ingrown toenails at home. However, they can cause complications that might require medical treatment. Your risk of complications is higher if you have diabetes or other conditions that cause poo

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An inguinal hernia occurs in the abdomen near the groin area. They develop when fatty or intestinal tissues push through a weakness in the abdominal wall near the right or left inguinal canal. Each inguinal canal resides at the base of the abdomen.


Both men and woman have inguinal canals. In men, the testes usually descend through their canal by around a few weeks before birth. In women, each canal is the location of passage for the round ligament of the uterus. If you have a hernia in or near this passageway, it results in a protruding bulge. It may be painful during movement.


Many people don’t seek treatment for this type of hernia because it may be small or not cause any symptoms. Prompt medical treatment can help prevent further protrusion and discomfort.

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Interstitial (in-tur-STISH-ul) lung disease describes a large group of disorders, most of which cause progressive scarring of lung tissue. The scarring associated with interstitial lung disease eventually affects your ability to breathe and get enough oxygen into your bloodstream.


Interstitial lung disease can be caused by long-term exposure to hazardous materials, such as asbestos. Some types of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, also can cause interstitial lung disease. In some cases, however, the causes remain unknown.


Once lung scarring occurs, it's generally irreversible. Medications may slow the damage of interstitial lung disease, but many people never regain full use of their lungs. Lung transplant is an option for some people who have interstitial lung disease.

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Intestinal ischemia (is-KEE-me-uh) describes a variety of conditions that occur when blood flow to your intestines decreases due to a blockage, usually in an artery. Intestinal ischemia can affect your small intestine, your large intestine (colon) or both.


Intestinal ischemia is a serious condition that can cause pain and make it difficult for your intestines to work. In severe cases, loss of blood flow to the intestines can damage intestinal tissue and lead to death.


Treatments are available for intestinal ischemia. To improve the chances of recovery, it's crucial to recognize the early symptoms and get medical help right away.

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Digested food particles must travel through 25 feet or more of intestines as part of normal digestion. These digested wastes are constantly in motion. However, intestinal obstruction can put a stop to this. An intestinal obstruction occurs when your small or large intestine is blocked. The blockage can be partial or total, and it prevents passage of fluids and digested food.


If intestinal obstruction happens, food, fluids, gastric acids, and gas build up behind the site of the blockage. If enough pressure builds up, your intestine can rupture, leaking harmful intestinal contents and bacteria into your abdominal cavity. This is a life-threatening complication.


There are many potential causes of intestinal obstruction. Often, this condition can’t be prevented. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial. An untreated intestinal obstruction can be fatal.

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An intracranial hematoma is a collection of blood within the skull, most commonly caused by rupture of a blood vessel within the brain or from trauma such as a car accident or fall. The blood collection can be within the brain tissue or underneath the skull, pressing on the brain.


Although some head injuries — such as one that causes only a brief lapse of consciousness (concussion) — can be minor, an intracranial hematoma is potentially life-threatening. It usually requires immediate treatment, often surgery to remove the blood.

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Intussusception (in-tuh-suh-SEP-shun) is the most common abdominal emergency affecting children under 2 years old. It happens when one portion of the bowel slides into the next, much like the pieces of a telescope.


When this "telescoping" happens, the flow of fluids and food through the bowel can become blocked, the intestine can swell and bleed, and the blood supply to the affected part of the intestine can get cut off. Eventually, this can cause part of the bowel to die.


Intussusception happens in 1 to 4 out of every 1,000 infants and is most common in babies 5 to 9 months old, though older children also can have it. Boys get intussusception more often than girls.

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Invasive lobular carcinoma is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast.


Invasive cancer means the cancer cells have broken out of the lobule where they began and have the potential to spread to the lymph nodes and other areas of the body.


Invasive lobular carcinoma makes up a small portion of all breast cancers. The most common type of breast cancer begins in the breast ducts (invasive ductal carcinoma).


Invasive lobular carcinoma typically doesn't form a lump, which is common in breast cancer. Instead, there is a change in the breast that feels like a thickening or fullness in one part of the breast and is different from the surrounding breast tissue.

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The iris is the circular, colored portion of the front of the eye with the dark pupil in the center. It is made up of muscular fibers that control the amount of light entering the pupil so that we can see clearly. The iris accomplishes this task by making the pupil smaller in bright light and larger in dim light.

The iris is the front part of the uveal tract of the eye. The uveal tract consists of the iris, then the ciliary body, and behind that, the choroid. In some people, the iris can become inflamed. This is termed iritis.

Inflammation of the front part of the eye is referred to as anterior uveitis or iritis, whereas inflammation behind this is known as posterior uveitis.

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Ischemic colitis occurs when blood flow to part of the large intestine (colon) is reduced, usually due to narrowed or blocked blood vessels (arteries). The diminished blood flow doesn't provide enough oxygen for the cells in your digestive system.


Ischemic colitis can cause pain and may damage your colon. Any part of the colon can be affected, but ischemic colitis usually causes pain on the left side of the belly area (abdomen).


The condition can be misdiagnosed because it can easily be confused with other digestive problems. Ischemic colitis may heal on its own. But you may need medication to treat ischemic colitis or prevent infection, or you may need surgery if your colon has been damaged.

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Islet cell cancer is a term used to describe a group of cancers that can occur in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. Islet cell cancers, also known as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, are very rare.


Islet cells are small hormone-producing cells normally found in your pancreas. Islet cell cancer arises from these cells. Some islet cell cancer cells continue to secrete hormones, creating too much of the given hormone in your body. Examples of these types of islet cell cancers include gastrinoma and glucagonoma.

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Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is an x-ray exam that uses an injection of contrast material to evaluate your kidneys, ureters and bladder and help diagnose blood in the urine or pain in your side or lower back. An IVP may provide enough information to allow your doctor to treat you with medication and avoid surgery.Inform your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking and allergies, especially to iodine-based contrast materials. Your doctor may instruct you to take a mild laxative the evening before the exam and to not eat or drink anything after midnight. Wear loose, comfortable clothing and leave jewelry at home. You may be asked to wear a gown.


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This test measures the amount of immunoglobulins A, G, and M in the blood and, in certain circumstances, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) . There are numerous conditions and diseases that can cause increased or decreased production of immunoglobulins (Igs).Immunoglobulins play a key role in the body's immune system. They are proteins produced by specific immune cells (plasma cells and B-cells) in response to bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms as well as substances that are recognized as "non-self" and harmful antigens. The first time a person is infected or otherwise exposed to a foreign substance (antigen), their immune system recognises the microorganism or substance as "non-self" and stimulates cells to produce specific immunoglobulin(s) or antibodies that can bind to and neutralise the threat. With subsequent exposures, the immune system "remembers" the antigen that was encountered, which allows for the rapid production of more antibodies and helps prevent re-infection.There are five classes of immunoglobulins and several subclasses. Each class represents a group of antibodies and has a slightly different role. Classes of immunoglobulins include:


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An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common antibodies in the body. Antibodies are proteins made by the immune system to fight bacteria, viruses, and toxins.IgA is found in high concentrations in the body's mucous membranes, particularly the respiratory passages and gastrointestinal tract, as well as in saliva and tears. IgA also plays a role in allergic reactions. IgA levels also may be high in autoimmune conditions, disorders in which the body mistakenly makes antibodies against healthy tissues.

 

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This test measures the amount of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the blood.   Immunoglobulin E is a type of antibody produced by the body during an allergic reaction.  IgE levels are normally very low.  During exposure to an allergen, the immune system of the allergic person creates IgE which triggers typical allergy symptoms such as red itchy skin, runny nose, itchy eyes and difficulty breathing.  Measuring IgE levels can help determine if a person may have an allergic disease including asthma although it cannot identify a specific allergen.  IgE can also be elevated when a person has a parasitic infection.   


A Total IgE test is typically ordered when a person is experiencing symptoms associated with a parasitic infection or allergic reaction, especially if they do not know what they may be allergic to.  The test is usually taken shortly after or while someone is experiencing symptoms such as persistent itching, hives, itchy eyes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sneezing, coughing, congestion or difficulty breathing.  This test is usually accompanied by or followed with testing for specific allergens. 

 

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 This test measures the level of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Antibodies in the blood.  IgG are the smallest and most common type of antibody making up 75-80% of all antibodies in the body.  IgG antibodies are found in all body fluids and play a key role in fighting infections from bacteria and viruses. High IgG levels may indicate that a person has a chronic infection such as HIV or Hepatitis.  They can also be high due to conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis, some types of cancer and autoimmune disorders.  Low IgG levels can be found in people with kidney damage, leukemia and conditions which weaken the immune system leaving them more susceptible to infections. IgG test results cannot indicate the specific type or source of an infection.  More specific testing may be needed as a follow up to abnormal results.  An IgG test may be ordered when someone is suffering from frequent infections to see if they have a condition which is impairing their immune system. 


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The gamma-globulin band as seen in conventional serum protein electrophoresis consists of 5 immunoglobulins. In normal serum, about 5% is immunoglobulin M (IgM)Elevations of IgM may be due to polyclonal immunoglobulin production. Monoclonal elevations of IgM occur in macroglobulinemia.Monoclonal gammopathies of all types may lead to a spike in the gamma-globulin zone seen on serum protein electrophoresis.Decreased immunoglobulin levels are found in patients with congenital deficiencies.


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The inhibin A test is done to measure the amount of this hormone in a pregnant woman's blood to see if the baby may have Down syndrome. Inhibin A is made by the placenta during pregnancy. The level of inhibin A in the blood is used in a maternal serum quadruple screening test. Generally done between 15 and 20 weeks, this test checks the levels of four substances in a pregnant woman's blood. The quad screen checks alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a type of estrogen (unconjugated estriol, or uE3), and the hormone inhibin A. The levels of these substances-along with a woman's age and other factors-help the doctor estimate the chance that the baby may have certain problems or birth defects.


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Inhibin is a hormone secreted by granulosa cells in the ovarian follicles and by Sertoli cells in the testis. Its physiological role is to suppress secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by the pituitary.Inhibin exists as two different isoforms, inhibin A and inhibin B. Both isoforms are comprised of 2 subunits, the alpha and beta subunits. The alpha subunit is the same for both inhibin A and B, but the beta subunit differs. Inhibin A contains a beta-A subunit and inhibin B contains a beta-B subunit. Plasma levels of inhibin A and B fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. At menopause, serum inhibin A and B decrease to very low or undetectable levels.


Ninety five percent of ovarian cancers are derived from epithelial cells. The remaining 5% are germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors. Inhibin A is elevated up to 6 times the upper limit of the reference range in approximately 70% of granulosa cell tumors. Inhibin A is also elevated in about 20% of patients with epithelial tumors of the mucinous type. Inhibin is a better tumor marker for these two types of ovarian cancer than cancer antigen 125 (CA 125). Inhibin A is most useful as a tumor marker in postmenopausal women, because plasma levels are normally very low. Inhibin A levels are much harder to interpret in premenopausal women, because plasma levels are higher and fluctuate throughout the menstrual cycle. Because of its low sensitivity, a normal inhibin A level does not rule-out a mucinous or granulosa ovarian cell tumor. Inhibin B might be elevated in these cases.


Inhibin A level decreases shortly after surgery for ovarian cancer. Patients in remission have normal levels of inhibin A. Elevations of inhibin A after treatment are suggestive of residual or recurrent disease. Inhibin A may become elevated prior to onset of clinical symptoms. Inhibin A levels are increased in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia and Down syndrome.Specimen requirement is blood collected into a red top tube. Reference range using a Beckman Coulter Unicel chemiluminescent assay is <2.1 pg/mL for males, <97.5 pg/mL for premenopausal females and <6.9 pg/mL for postmenopausal females. 


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Insulin is produced by the pancreas and used by the body to transport and convert glucose throughout the body into usable energy. Issues with the pancreas including diabetes or a pancreatic tumor can prevent the pancreas from producing the correct amount of insulin to maintain proper glucose levels. Too much insulin causes hypoglycemia, or low glucose levels, while too little, or resistance to, insulin, which is often caused by type 2 diabetes, leads to extremely high levels of glucose. Either situation can lead to severe health issues.Excess insulin production may be due to an insulin producing tumor (insulinoma) and can cause low glucose levels leading to convulsions or loss of consciousness. Acute or chronic symptoms of low blood sugar include sweating, confusion, blurred vision, hunger, fainting or heart palpitations.


Insulin resistance, which is associated with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, heart disease and polycystic ovarian syndrome (POCS), can lead to extremely high glucose levels in the body. Long term blood sugar levels that are too high cause severe health problems associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes including blindness, neuropathy that can lead to foot and leg amputations and cardiovascular disease. The pancreatic system in those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes becomes damaged over time and is unable to utilize insulin properly. Known as insulin resistance, this condition can be improved with diet and lifestyle changes but may ultimately require injectable insulin.


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Context: Autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase, islet antigen-2, insulin, and zinc transporter-8 are characteristic of type 1 diabetes. They are detectable before clinical onset and define the subgroup of patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Autoantibody assays are increasingly available to clinicians. This article reviews the prognostic significance of autoantibodies and considers the utility of diabetes antibody testing in routine clinical practice.Evidence Acquisition: The medical literature to May 2009 was reviewed for key articles and consensus statements covering use of islet autoantibody testing for prediction and classification of diabetes and implications for therapy.Evidence Synthesis: Sensitive and specific glutamate decarboxylase and islet antigen-2 antibody assays are widely available, although to insulin autoantibody assays remain variable. Islet autoantibodies appear early in life, and testing for multiple antibodies identifies unaffected individuals at very high risk of type 1 diabetes with high sensitivity. This is important for research, but currently no intervention prevents or delays diabetes, and evidence of benefit from awareness of risk is weak. In non-insulin-treated diabetes, patients with autoantibodies progress to insulin requirement more rapidly, but evidence that testing benefits the individual patient is limited. Antibody testing is useful in classifying diabetes of other types.Conclusions: Islet autoantibody testing allows prediction of type 1 diabetes and definition of the latent autoimmune diabetes in adults subgroup of non-insulin-treated patients. Although useful for research, until therapies modulating the disease process become available, the benefit to individual patients is generally questionable. With a few exceptions, diabetes antibody testing does not yet have a role in routine clinical care.


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The cobalamins, also referred to as vitamin B12, are a group of closely related enzymatic cofactors involved in the conversion of methylmalonyl-coenzyme A to succinyl-coenzyme A and in the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine. Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to megaloblastic anemia and neurological deficits. The latter may exist without anemia, or precede it. Adequate replacement therapy will generally improve or cure cobalamin deficiency. Unfortunately, many other conditions, which require different interventions, can mimic the symptoms and signs of vitamin B12 deficiency. Moreover, even when cobalamin deficiency has been established, clinical improvement may require different dosages or routes of vitamin B12 replacement, depending on the underlying cause. In particular, patients with pernicious anemia (PA), possibly the commonest type of cobalamin deficiency in developed countries, require either massive doses of oral vitamin B12 or parenteral replacement therapy. The reason is that in PA patients suffer from gastric mucosal atrophy, most likely caused by a destructive autoimmune process. This results in diminished or absent gastric acid, pepsin and intrinsic factor (IF) production. Gastric acid and pepsin are required for liberation of cobalamin from binding proteins, while IF binds the free vitamin B12, carries it to receptors on the ileal mucosa, and facilitates its absorption. Most PA patients have autoantibodies against gastric parietal cells or intrinsic factor, with the latter being very specific but only present in approximately 50% of cases. By contrast, parietal cell antibodies are found in approximately 90% of PA patients, but are also found in a significant proportion of patients with other autoimmune diseases, and in approximately 2.5% (4th decade of life) to approximately 10% (8th decade of life) of healthy individuals.


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Autoimmune diseases cause the body to attack itself, which leads to inflammation and results in damage to muscles, tissues, and organs. The inflammation produces antibodies in the blood that can be measured and the levels used to diagnose specific autoimmune diseases. Type I diabetes mellitus (DM) is an autoimmune disease, where the body attacks the pancreatic cells that produce insulin (islet cells). High ICA levels can be measured a number of years before clinical signs of diabetes are seen, and this test is a very helpful tool your doctor may use to prevent the disease or to better manage the onset, as well as to provide a proper diet and treatment. ICA testing must be done before any insulin therapy is started, since this will cause elevations in this antibody in the blood.ICA tests are ordered to diagnose Type I diabetes mellitus (DM), insulin allergy, insulin resistance; or to monitor your condition after a pancreas transplant.


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IBS affects between 25 and 45 million Americans. Most of them are women. People are most likely to get the condition in their late teens to early 40s.


IBS is a mix of belly discomfort or pain and trouble with bowel habits: either going more or less often than normal (diarrhea or constipation) or having a different kind of stool (thin, hard, or soft and liquid).


It’s not life-threatening, and it doesn't make you more likely to get other colon conditions, such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, or colon cancer. But IBS can be a long-lasting problem that changes how you live your life. People with IBS may miss work or school more often, and they may feel less able to take part in daily activities. Some people may need to change their work setting: shifting to working at home, changing hours, or even not working at all.

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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that affects the large intestine. Signs and symptoms include cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, and diarrhea or constipation, or both. IBS is a chronic condition that you'll need to manage long term.


Only a small number of people with IBS have severe signs and symptoms. Some people can control their symptoms by managing diet, lifestyle and stress. More-severe symptoms can be treated with medication and counseling.


IBS doesn't cause changes in bowel tissue or increase your risk of colorectal cancer.

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IBS affects between 25 and 45 million Americans. Most of them are women. People are most likely to get the condition in their late teens to early 40s.

IBS is a mix of belly discomfort or pain and trouble with bowel habits: either going more or less often than normal (diarrhea or constipation) or having a different kind of stool (thin, hard, or soft and liquid).

It’s not life-threatening, and it doesn't make you more likely to get other colon conditions, such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, or colon cancer. But IBS can be a long-lasting problem that changes how you live your life. People with IBS may miss work or school more often, and they may feel less able to take part in daily activities. Some people may need to change their work setting: shifting to working at home, changing hours, or even not working at all.


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The III academic programme aims to deliver world class interdisciplinary research for children with infectious, immunological and inflammatory disease, children with life threatening respiratory disease, children in pain and critically ill children on intensive care.

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On the whole, your immune system does a remarkable job of defending you against disease-causing microorganisms. But sometimes it fails: A germ invades successfully and makes you sick. Is it possible to intervene in this process and boost your immune system? What if you improve your diet? Take certain vitamins or herbal preparations? Make other lifestyle changes in the hope of producing a near-perfect immune response?

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High blood pressure is also known as hypertension. Blood pressure is the amount of force exerted against the walls of the arteries as blood flows through them.


In the United States, approximately 85 million people have high blood pressure - about 1 in every 3 adults over 20, according to the American Heart Association (AHA).

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) estimate that about two-thirds of people over the age of 65 in the U.S. have high blood pressure.

If left untreated or uncontrolled, high blood pressure can cause many health problems. These conditions include heart failure, vision loss, stroke, and kidney disease.

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Indigestion is often a sign of an underlying problem, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, or gallbladder disease, rather than a condition of its own.

Also called dyspepsia, it is defined as a persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen.

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In general, infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant (conceive) after one year of unprotected sex. Women who do not have regular menstrual cycles, or are older than 35 years and have not conceived during a 6-month period of trying, should consider making an appointment with a reproductive endocrinologist - an infertility specialist. These doctors may also be able to help women with recurrent pregnancy loss - 2 or more spontaneous miscarriages.

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Strange bumps have sprung up on your face. They're not exactly pimples. They're not hives, either. Could they be ingrown hairs?

Ingrown hairs are hairs that have curled around and grown back into your skin instead of rising up from it.

Sometimes, dead skin can clog up a hair follicle. That forces the hair inside it to grow sideways under the skin, rather than upward and outward. Sometimes, cutting naturally curly hair too closely will result in the sharpened end of the hair piercing the skin, causing an ingrown hair.

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Insomnia is a sleep disorder that regularly affects millions of people worldwide. In short, individuals with insomnia find it difficult to fall asleep or stay asleep. The effects can be devastating.


Insomnia commonly leads to daytime sleepiness, lethargy, and a general feeling of being unwell, both mentally and physically. Mood swings, irritability, and anxiety are common associated symptoms.


Insomnia has also been associated with a higher risk of developing chronic diseases. According to the National Sleep Foundation, 30-40 percent of American adults report that they have had symptoms of insomnia within the last 12 months, and 10-15 percent of adults claim to have chronic insomnia.

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Interstitial cystitis (in-tur-STISH-ul sis-TIE-tis) — also called painful bladder syndrome — is a chronic condition causing bladder pressure, bladder pain and sometimes pelvic pain. The pain ranges from mild discomfort to severe.


Your bladder is a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine. The bladder expands until it's full and then signals your brain that it's time to urinate, communicating through the pelvic nerves. This creates the urge to urinate for most people.


With interstitial cystitis, these signals get mixed up — you feel the need to urinate more often and with smaller volumes of urine than most people.


Interstitial cystitis most often affects women and can have a long-lasting impact on quality of life. Although there's no cure, medications and other therapies may offer relief.

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Intestinal worms, also known as parasitic worms, are one of the main types of intestinal parasites. Common types of intestinal worms include:


    flatworms, which include tapeworms and flukes

    roundworms, which cause ascariasis, pinworm, and hookworm infections

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Iron deficiency anemia is a common type of anemia — a condition in which blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body's tissues.


As the name implies, iron deficiency anemia is due to insufficient iron. Without enough iron, your body can't produce enough of a substance in red blood cells that enables them to carry oxygen (hemoglobin). As a result, iron deficiency anemia may leave you tired and short of breath.


You can usually correct iron deficiency anemia with iron supplementation. Sometimes additional tests or treatments for iron deficiency anemia are necessary, especially if your doctor suspects that you're bleeding internally.

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A normal menstrual cycle lasts 28 days, plus or minus seven days. Menstrual bleeding is considered irregular if it occurs more frequently than every 21 days or lasts longer than 8 days. Missed, early, or late periods are also considered signs of an irregular cycle.


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IBS affects between 25 and 45 million Americans. Most of them are women. People are most likely to get the condition in their late teens to early 40s.


IBS is a mix of belly discomfort or pain and trouble with bowel habits: either going more or less often than normal (diarrhea or constipation) or having a different kind of stool (thin, hard, or soft and liquid).


It’s not life-threatening, and it doesn't make you more likely to get other colon conditions, such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, or colon cancer. But IBS can be a long-lasting problem that changes how you live your life. People with IBS may miss work or school more often, and they may feel less able to take part in daily activities. Some people may need to change their work setting: shifting to working at home, changing hours, or even not working at all.

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Itchy skin is an uncomfortable, irritating sensation that makes you want to scratch. Also known as pruritus (proo-RIE-tus), itchy skin is usually caused by dry skin. It's common in older adults, as skin tends to become drier with age.

Depending on the cause of your itchy skin, it may appear normal. Or it may be red or rough or have bumps or blisters. Repeated scratching can cause raised, thickened areas of skin that may bleed or become infected.

Self-care measures such as moisturizing, using anti-itch products and taking cool baths can help relieve itchy skin. Long-term relief requires identifying and treating the cause of itchy skin. Itchy skin treatments include medications, wet dressings and light therapy.

 

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Itchy eyes may be uncomfortable, especially when you’re trying to fall asleep. There are several reasons you may notice itchy eye symptoms only at night. One reason may be because you’re not as busy as you are at other points during the day. You may be more in tune with your body in the evening when things are quieter.

Working outside of your home in the daytime may mean you’re exposed to different allergens in your home at night. For example, at the office you might have air conditioning. At home, you may open windows to get a cool breeze — and possibly pollen — from outdoors.


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An itchy scalp may be irritating for anyone, especially during the hot summers. Instead of trying a host of market products and professional treatments, use these regular and popular home remedies to eliminate the itchiness from your scalp. Before opting for these home remedies, make sure you check the cause of this itchiness. Notice your scalp texture carefully. Dry skin on the scalp or infections such as dandruff and psoriasis can cause an itchy scalp. The itching and scratching can also result in excess hair fall.

Ask yourself these questions: Is your scalp dry or damaged? Are you suffering from normal dandruff or lice? Or is it any other regular reason like sweating that is giving you an itchy scalp? If your answer is yes, you can move on to the home remedies safely without further ado.


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Itching affecting the scalp, meaning the skin covering the top of the head which grows hair, can have many causes. It can be caused by parasites such as lice, irritation due to a harsh shampoo, the presence of dandruff, or a skin disease, the most common being psoriasis which causes skin lesions and itching. The treatment for an itchy scalp can be prescribed after determining the cause. The most common cause in children is head lice, the discovery of nits should lead to treatment with two applications of lotion, 8 days apart.

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Itchy skin is an uncomfortable, irritating sensation that makes you want to scratch. Also known as pruritus (proo-RIE-tus), itchy skin is usually caused by dry skin. It's common in older adults, as skin tends to become drier with age.

Depending on the cause of your itchy skin, it may appear normal. Or it may be red or rough or have bumps or blisters. Repeated scratching can cause raised, thickened areas of skin that may bleed or become infected.

Self-care measures such as moisturizing, using anti-itch products and taking cool baths can help relieve itchy skin. Long-term relief requires identifying and treating the cause of itchy skin. Itchy skin treatments include medications, wet dressings and light therapy.


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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an umbrella term used to describe disorders that involve chronic inflammation of your digestive tract. Types of IBD include:


Ulcerative colitis. This condition causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the innermost lining of your large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Crohn's disease. This type of IBD is characterized by inflammation of the lining of your digestive tract, which often spreads deep into affected tissues.

Both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease usually involve severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue and weight loss.

IBD can be debilitating and sometimes leads to life-threatening complications.

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