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Jellyfish are a common sea creature found in every ocean. There are many species of jellyfish, all of them with tentacles. Some carry poisonous venom in their tentacles as a method of self-defense against predators. It’s this venom that makes a jellyfish sting so painful.


Most types of jellyfish stings will cause some discomfort, but some can be life-threatening. According to the National Science Foundation, over 500,000 people are stung by jellyfish every year in North America’s Chesapeake Bay alone.

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Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study.

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Jaundice is a term used to describe the yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. It's caused by a build-up of a substance called bilirubin in the blood and body's tissues. Any condition that disrupts the movement of bilirubin from the blood to the liver and out of the body can cause jaundice. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is formed by the breakdown of dead red blood cells (RBC) in the liver. There are several ways that a build- up of bilirubin can occur:

If red blood cells broke down too early, the spleen gets overloaded and hence too much bilirubin is produced to be handled by the liver. Unprocessed bilirubin accumulates in the bloodstream and eventually the skin and eyes looks yellow. This condition is called hemolytic anemia. At times this condition is inherited. Hemolytic anemia may also occur as a side-effect of certain drugs.
Sometimes the trouble is in the liver cells. If there is a faulty uptake, processing or excretion of bilirubin it will result in an accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream. Newborn babies can be temporarily jaundiced because of lack of mature enzymes needed to process bilirubin. In adults, alcoholism is a common cause of damage to liver cells. Other toxins and certain drugs can also cause acute damage to the liver.
A blockage in the bile duct can also result in a build-up of fully processed bilirubin. This can spill over into the urine and cause it to become very dark. The blockage is most commonly caused by a gallstone.

 

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Tinea cruris, most commonly known as jock itch, is a fungal infection of the skin. It belongs to a group of fungal skin infections called tinea. Like other tinea infections, jock itch is caused by mold-like fungi, which are known as dermatophytes. These microscopic fungi naturally live on the skin as well as on the hair and nails. They’re typically harmless, but they can multiply quickly and cause infections when they’re allowed to thrive in warm, moist areas. This is why jock itch usually develops in the skin around the groin, inner thighs, and buttocks.Jock itch is most common in men and adolescent boys. The infection causes a rash that often itches or burns. The affected areas can also be red, flaky, or scaly.Though jock itch can be bothersome, it’s typically a mild infection. Treating it quickly will minimize symptoms and keep the infection from spreading. Most people find relief simply by applying topical antifungal medications and by keeping the affected area clean and dry.


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Joints are the parts of your body where your bones meet. Joints allow the bones of your skeleton to move. Joints include:

shoulders
hips
elbows
knees
Joint pain refers to discomfort, aches, and soreness in any of the body’s joints. Joint pain is a common complaint. It doesn’t typically require a hospital visit. Sometimes, joint pain is the result of an illness or injury. Arthritis is also a common cause of joint pain. However, it can also be due to other conditions or factors.

 

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Newborn jaundice is a yellowing of a baby’s skin and eyes. Newborn jaundice is very common and can occur when babies have a high level of bilirubin, a yellow pigment produced during normal breakdown of red blood cells. In older babies and adults, the liver processes bilirubin, which then passes it through the intestinal tract. However, a newborn’s still-developing liver may not be mature enough to remove bilirubin.


The good news is that in most cases, newborn jaundice goes away on its own as a baby’s liver develops and as the baby begins to feed, which helps bilirubin pass through the body.


In most cases, jaundice will disappear within 2 to 3 weeks. Jaundice that persists longer than three weeks may be a symptom of an underlying condition. Additionally, high levels of bilirubin can put a baby at risk for deafness, cerebral palsy, or other forms of brain damage. That’s why the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that all newborn babies be examined for jaundice every time their vital signs are measured (or at least every 8 to 12 hours), before discharge from the hospital, and again a few days after discharge.

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Jet lag, also called desynchronosis and flight fatigue, is a temporary disorder that causes fatigue, insomnia, and other symptoms as a result of air travel across time zones. It is considered a circadian rhythm sleep disorder, which is a disruption of the internal body clock.

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