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Male breast cancer is a rare cancer that forms in the breast tissue of men. Though breast cancer is most commonly thought of as a woman's disease, male breast cancer does occur.Male breast cancer is most common in older men, though it can occur at any age.Men diagnosed with male breast cancerat an early stage have a good chance for a cure. Still, many men delay seeing their doctors if they notice one of the usual signs or symptoms, such as a breast lump. For this reason, many male breast cancers are diagnosed when the disease is more advanced.


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Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body doesn't produce enough testosterone — the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an impaired ability to produce sperm orboth.You may be born with male hypogonadism, or it can develop later in life, often from injury or infection. The effects — and what you can do about them — depend on the cause and at what point in your life male hypogonadism occurs. Some types of male hypogonadism can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy.


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Malignant hyperthermia is a condition that triggers a severe reaction to certain drugs used as part of anesthesia for surgery. Without prompt treatment, the disease can be fatal.The genes that cause malignant hyperthermia are inherited. In most cases, no signs or symptoms of the condition exist until you are exposed to anesthesia.


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Mammary duct ectasia (ek-TAY-zhuh) occurs when a milk duct beneath your nipple widens, the duct walls thicken and the duct fills with fluid. The milk duct may become blocked or clogged with a thick, sticky substance. The condition often causes no symptoms, but some women may have nipple discharge, breast tenderness or inflammation of the clogged duct (periductal mastitis).

Mammary duct ectasia most often occurs in women of perimenopausal age — around 45 to 55 years — but it can happen after menopause, too. The condition sometimes improves without treatment. If symptoms persist, you may need antibiotics or possibly surgery to remove the affected milk duct.Though it's normal to worry about any changes in your breasts, mammary duct ectasia and periductal mastisis aren't risk factors for breast cancer


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Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects connective tissue — the fibers that support and anchor your organs and other structures in your body. Marfan syndrome most commonly affects the heart, eyes, blood vessels and skeleton.People with Marfan syndrome are usually tall and thin with disproportionately long arms, legs, fingers and toes. The damage caused by Marfan syndrome can be mild or severe. If your aorta — the large blood vessel that carries blood from your heart to the rest of your body — is affected, the condition can become life-threatening.
Treatment usually includes medications to keep your blood pressure low to reduce the strain on your aorta. Regular monitoring to check for damage progression is vital. Many people with Marfan syndrome eventually require preventive surgery to repair the aorta.
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MEdulloblastoma is a cancerous tumor—also called cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)—that starts in the region of the brain at the base of the skull, called the posterior fossa. These tumors tend to spread to other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord


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Membranous nephropathy (MEM-bruh-nus nuh-FROP-uh-thee) occurs when the small blood vessels in the kidney (glomeruli), which filter wastes from the blood, become damaged and thickened. As a result, proteins leak from the damaged blood vessels into the urine (proteinuria). For many, loss of these proteins eventually causes signs and symptoms known as nephrotic syndrome.In mild cases, membranous nephropathy may get better on its own, without any treatment. As protein leakage increases, so does the risk of long-term kidney damage. In many, the disease ultimately leads to kidney failure. There's no absolute cure for membranous nephropathy, but successful treatment can lead to remission of proteinuria and a good long-term outlook.


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A meningioma is a tumor that arises from the meninges — the membranes that surround your brain and spinal cord. Although not technically a brain tumor, it is included in this category because it may compress or squeeze the adjacent brain, nerves and vessels. Meningioma is the most common type of tumor that forms in the head.

Most meningiomas grow very slowly, often over many years without causing symptoms. But in some instances, their effects on adjacent brain tissue, nerves or vessels may cause serious disability.

Meningiomas occur most commonly in women, and are often discovered at older ages, but a meningioma may occur at any age.

Because most meningiomas grow slowly, often without any significant signs and symptoms, they do not always require immediate treatment and may be monitored over time.


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Mental illness refers to a wide range of mental health conditions — disorders that affect your mood, thinking and behavior. Examples of mental illness include depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and addictive behaviors.

Many people have mental health concerns from time to time. But a mental health concern becomes a mental illness when ongoing signs and symptoms cause frequent stress and affect your ability to function.

A mental illness can make you miserable and can cause problems in your daily life, such as at school or work or in relationships. In most cases, symptoms can be managed with a combination of medications and talk therapy (psychotherapy).

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Meralgia paresthetica is a condition characterized by tingling, numbness and burning pain in your outer thigh. The cause of meralgia paresthetica is compression of the nerve that supplies sensation to the skin surface of your thigh.

Tight clothing, obesity or weight gain, and pregnancy are common causes of meralgia paresthetica. However, meralgia paresthetica can also be due to local trauma or a disease, such as diabetes.

In most cases, you can relieve meralgia paresthetica with conservative measures, such as wearing looser clothing. In severe cases, treatment may include medications to relieve discomfort or, rarely, surgery.

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MCC usually develops on sun-exposed skin (e.g., head, neck, arms) as a painless, firm bump that can be red-purple or skin-colored. Patients frequently point out a new MCC to their doctor because a bump is growing rapidly and/or does not look like anything the patient has ever had before.  Most MCCs are diagnosed when a skin biopsy
The removal of cells or tissue in order to determine the presence, characteristics, or extent of a disease by a pathologist usually using microscopic analysis. is performed to rule out another sun-induced skin cancer
A term used to describe diseases in which abnormal cells continually divide without normal regulation. Cancerous cells may invade surrounding tissues and may spread to other regions of the body via blood and the lymphatic system.
 or to remove a presumed cyst. In the vast majority of cases, both the doctor and the patient are surprised by the diagnosis of MCC. For more examples of MCC tumors beyond those presented on this page, visit 
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Mesenteric ischemia (mez-un-TER-ik is-KEE-me-uh) is a condition caused by poor blood supply to your intestines. Mesenteric ischemia usually affects the small intestine, colon or both. It may also involve other organs in the digestive system. Mesenteric ischemia may be acute or chronic.Acute mesenteric ischemia occurs suddenly as a result of blockage to the flow of oxygen-rich blood and can permanently damage your intestines. You may experience sudden abdominal pain and, less often, bloody stools. This situation requires immediate medical care.

Chronic mesenteric ischemia occurs gradually from narrowing in one or more of the arteries supplying blood to your intestines (visceral arteries). You may develop pain 1 to 2 hours after eating, This pain may make it hard for you to eat, leading to weight loss. You may also notice changes in the frequency of your bowel movements, as well as bloating, nausea and vomiting.


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Lymphadenitis is a condition in which your lymph nodes become inflamed. When the condition affects the lymph nodes in the membrane that connects your bowel to the abdominal wall (mesentery), it's called mesenteric lymphadenitis (mez-un-TER-ik lim-fad-uh-NIE-tis).Mesenteric lymphadenitis, which is also called mesenteric adenitis, usually results from an intestinal infection. It mainly affects children and teens. This painful condition can mimic the warning signs of appendicitis. Unlike appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis is seldom serious and usually clears up on its own

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Malignant mesothelioma (me-zoe-thee-lee-O-muh) is a type of cancer that occurs in the thin layer of tissue that covers the majority of your internal organs (mesothelium).Mesothelioma is an aggressive and deadly form of cancer. Mesothelioma treatments are available, but for many people with mesothelioma, a cure is not possible.Doctors divide mesothelioma into different types based on what part of the mesothelium is affected. Mesothelioma most often affects the tissue that surrounds the lungs (pleura). This type is called pleural mesothelioma. Other, rarer types of mesothelioma affect tissue in the abdomen (peritoneal mesothelioma), around the heart and around the testicles.Mesothelioma doesn't include a form of noncancerous (benign) tumor that occurs in the chest and is sometimes called benign mesothelioma or solitary fibrous tumor.

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Metatarsalgia (met-uh-tahr-SAL-juh) is a condition in which the ball of your foot becomes painful and inflamed. You might develop it if you participate in activities that involve running and jumping. There are other causes as well, including foot deformities and shoes that are too tight or too loose.Although generally not serious, metatarsalgia can sideline you. Fortunately, at-home treatments, such as ice and rest, often relieve symptoms. Wearing proper footwear with shock-absorbing insoles or arch supports might prevent or minimize future problems with metatarsalgia.

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Microcephaly (my-kroh-SEF-uh-lee) is a rare neurological condition in which an infant's head is significantly smaller than the heads of other children of the same age and sex. Sometimes detected at birth, microcephaly usually is the result of the brain developing abnormally in the womb or not growing as it should after birth.Microcephaly can be caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Children with microcephaly often have developmental issues. Generally there's no treatment for microcephaly, but early intervention with supportive therapies, such as speech and occupational therapies, may help enhance your child's development and improve quality of life.

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MC is an inflammatory bowel condition that presents with chronic watery diarrhea but with macroscopically normal colonoscopy findings. Histological evidence of pathology is only seen through biopsies of the colonic mucosa. This is a fairly recent disease entity that was first described in the 1970s; hence, information on incidences may be underreported. Epidemiological analyses of endoscopic biopsies performed for diarrhea in North America found an incidence of 8.6 per 100,000 from 1985 to 2001.1 However, more recent studies based on the same population from 2002 to 2010 showed that incidences of MC more than doubled over that last decade with rates of 21.0 cases per 100,000 person-years.2 This probably reflects increasing awareness of the disease among both endoscopists and pathologists, leading to higher rates of detection.

Collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC) are two subtypes of MC that have similar presentations. Histologically, however, they have distinct characteristics. It is still a controversy whether CC and LC are just really one disease under MC, or if they should be considered as two distinct diseases that share some features. A review of 226 studies on CC and LC found little to no differences in epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, and response to treatment.

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Migraine with aura (also called classic migraine) is a headache that strikes after or along with sensory disturbances called aura. These disturbances can include flashes of light, blind spots and other vision changes or tingling in your hand or face.Treatments for migraine with aura and migraine without aura (also called common migraine) are usually the same. You can try to prevent migraine with aura with the same medications and self-care measures used to prevent migraine.

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Between 2 and 3 percent of children younger than 3 are allergic to milk. Although experts once believed that the vast majority of them would outgrow this allergy by the time they turned 3, recent studies contradict this theory. In one study, fewer than 20 percent of children had outgrown their allergy by age 4. Still, about 80 percent of children are likely to outgrow their milk allergy before they are 16.

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Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) occurs when the leaflets of the mitral valve bulge (prolapse) into the heart's left upper chamber (left atrium) like a parachute during the heart's contraction.Mitral (MY-trul) valve prolapse sometimes leads to blood leaking backward into the left atrium, a condition called mitral valve regurgitation.in most people, mitral valve prolapse isn't life-threatening and doesn't require treatment or changes in lifestyle. Some people with mitral valve prolapse, however, require treatment.

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Mitral valve stenosis — or mitral stenosis — is a narrowing of the heart's mitral valve. This abnormal valve doesn't open properly, blocking blood flow into the main pumping chamber of your heart (left ventricle). Mitral valve stenosis can make you tired and short of breath, among other problems.The main cause of mitral valve stenosis is an infection called rheumatic fever, which is related to strep infections. Rheumatic fever — now rare in the United States, but still common in developing countries — can scar the mitral valve. Left untreated, mitral valve stenosis can lead to serious heart complications.

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Mittelschmerz is one-sided, lower abdominal pain associated with ovulation. German for "middle pain," mittelschmerz occurs midway through a menstrual cycle — about 14 days before your next menstrual period.In most cases, mittelschmerz doesn't require medical attention. For minor mittelschmerz discomfort, over-the-counter pain relievers and home remedies are often effective. If your mittelschmerz pain is troublesome, your doctor may prescribe an oral contraceptive to stop ovulation and prevent midcycle pain.


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  • A molar pregnancy is the result of a genetic error during the fertilization process that leads to a growth of abnormal tissue within the uterus. Molar pregnancies rarely involve a developing embryo, and the growth of this material is rapid compared to normal fetal growth. It has the appearance of a large and random collection of grape-like cell clusters. There are two types of molar pregnancies, “complete,” and “partial.”
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Mold allergies can be tough to outrun. The fungus can grow in your basement, in your bathroom, in the cabinet under your sink where a leak went undetected, in the pile of dead leaves in your backyard and in the field of uncut grass down the road.There are roughly 1,000 species of mold in the United States — many of which aren’t visible to the naked eye. As tiny mold spores become airborne, they can cause allergic reactions in people who have mold allergies.

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Molluscum contagiosum is an infection caused by a poxvirus (molluscum contagiosum virus). The result of the infection is usually a benign, mild skin disease characterized by lesions (growths) that may appear anywhere on the body. Within 6-12 months, Molluscum contagiosum typically resolves without scarring but may take as long as 4 years.The lesions, known as Mollusca, are small, raised, and usually white, pink, or flesh-colored with a dimple or pit in the center. They often have a pearly appearance. They’re usually smooth and firm. In most people, the lesions range from about the size of a pinhead to as large as a pencil eraser (2 to 5 millimeters in diameter). They may become itchy, sore, red, and/or swollen.Mollusca may occur anywhere on the body including the face, neck, arms, legs, abdomen, and genital area, alone or in groups. The lesions are rarely found on the palms of the hands or the soles of the feet.


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Infectious mononucleosis (mono) is often called the kissing disease. The virus that causes mono is transmitted through saliva, so you can get it through kissing, but you can also be exposed through a cough or sneeze, or by sharing a glass or food utensils with someone who has mono. However, mononucleosis isn't as contagious as some infections, such as the common cold.You're most likely to get mononucleosis with all the signs and symptoms if you're an adolescent or young adult. Young children usually have few symptoms, and the infection often goes unrecognized.If you have mononucleosis, it's important to be careful of certain complications such as an enlarged spleen. Rest and adequate fluids are key to recovery.

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If you have a mood disorder, your general emotional state or mood is distorted or inconsistent with your circumstances and interferes with your ability to function. You may be extremely sad, empty or irritable (depressed), or you may have periods of depression alternating with being excessively happy (mania).Anxiety disorders can also affect your mood and often occur along with depression. Mood disorders may increase your risk of suicide.

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Morphea (mor-FEE-uh) is a rare skin condition that causes painless, discolored patches on your skin.Typically, the skin changes appear on the abdomen, chest or back. But they might also appear on your face, arms or legs. Morphea tends to affect only the outermost layers of your skin. But some forms of the condition also restrict movement in the joints.Morphea usually subsides on its own over time, though recurrences are common. In the meantime, medications and therapies are available to help treat the skin discoloration and other effects

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Mouth cancer, also known as oral cancer, is where a tumour develops in the lining of the mouth. It may be on the surface of the tongue, the insides of the cheeks, the roof of the mouth (palate), or the lips or gums.Tumours can also develop in the glands that produce saliva, the tonsils at the back of the mouth, and the part of the throat connecting your mouth to your windpipe (pharynx). However, these are less common.

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Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.[1] Movement disorders are synonymous with basal ganglia or extrapyramidal diseases.[2] Movement disorders are conventionally divided into two major categories- hyperkinetic and hypokinetic.Hyperkinetic movement disorders refer to dyskinesia, or excessive, often repetitive, involuntary movements that intrude upon the normal flow of motor activity.Hypokinetic movement disorders refer to akinesia (lack of movement), hypokinesia (reduced amplitude of movements), bradykinesia (slow movement) and rigidity. In primary movement disorders, the abnormal movement is the primary manifestation of the disorder. In secondary movement disorders, the abnormal movement is a manifestation of another systemic or neurological disorde


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Moyamoya disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder caused by blocked arteries at the base of the brain in an area called the basal ganglia. The name “moyamoya” means “puff of smoke” in Japanese and describes the look of the tangle of tiny vessels formed to compensate for the blockage.  Moyamoya disease was first described in Japan in the 1960s and it has since been found in individuals in the other countries around the world; its incidence is higher in Asian countries than in Europe or North America. The disease primarily affects children, but it can also occur in adults. In children, the first symptom of Moyamoya disease is often stroke, or recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIA, commonly referred to as “mini-strokes”), frequently accompanied by muscular weakness or paralysis affecting one side of the body, or seizures.  Adults may also experience these symptoms that arise from blocked arteries, but more often experience a hemorrhagic stroke due to bleeding into the brain from the abnormal brain vessels.  Individuals with this disorder may have disturbed consciousness, problems with speaking and understanding speech, sensory and cognitive impairments, involuntary movements, and vision problems. About one in 10 individuals with Moyamoya disease has a close relative who is also affected; in these cases researchers think that Moyamoya disease is the result of inherited genetic abnormalities. Studies that look for the abnormal gene(s) may help reveal the biomechanisms that cause the disorder.

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Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a common skin bacteria. It is sometimes called staph, and it most often causes skin and soft tissue infections. Although S. aureus has been causing staph infections as long as humans have existed, MRSA has only been around since 1961. Methicillin was one of the first antibiotics used to treat S. aureus and other infections. S. aureus developed a gene mutation that allowed it to escape being killed by methicillin, so it became resistant to methicillin. That makes it harder to treat someone who gets an infection. Stronger, more expensive, or intravenous antibiotics may be needed.


Since the 1960s, MRSA has picked up more resistance to different antibiotics. Overuse of antibiotics has increased resistance in MRSA and other infectious bacteria, because resistance genes (the genes that code for resistance) can be passed from bacteria to bacteria.


If a doctor orders a test for bacteria on a specimen of pus, for example, the laboratory will alert the doctor if the test shows MRSA, so that precautions can be taken, and the right treatment can be started.

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Multiple myeloma is a cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help you fight infections by making antibodies that recognize and attack germs.Multiple myeloma causes cancer cells to accumulate in the bone marrow, where they crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than produce helpful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications.Treatment for multiple myeloma isn't always necessary for people who aren't experiencing any signs or symptoms. For people with multiple myeloma who require treatment, a number of treatments are available to help control the disease.

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, the disease can cause the nerves themselves to deteriorate or become permanently damaged.Signs and symptoms of MS vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected. Some people with severe MS may lose the ability to walk independently or at all, while others may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms.There's no cure for multiple sclerosis. However, treatments can help speed recovery from attacks, modify the course of the disease and manage symptoms.

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Myasthenia gravis (my-us-THEE-nee-uh GRAY-vis) is characterized by weakness and rapid fatigue of any of the muscles under your voluntary control.Myasthenia gravis is caused by a breakdown in the normal communication between nerves and muscles.There is no cure for myasthenia gravis, but treatment can help relieve signs and symptoms, such as weakness of arm or leg muscles, double vision, drooping eyelids, and difficulties with speech, chewing, swallowing and breathing.Though myasthenia gravis can affect people of any age, it's more common in women younger than 40 and in men older than 60.

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Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of disorders caused by poorly formed blood cells or ones that don't work properly. Myelodysplastic syndromes result from something amiss in the spongy material inside your bones where blood cells are made (bone marrow).Treatment for myelodysplastic syndromes usually focuses on reducing or preventing complications of the disease and its treatments. In some cases, treatment might involve chemotherapy or a bone marrow transplant.

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Myelofibrosis is a serious bone marrow disorder that disrupts your body's normal production of blood cells. The result is extensive scarring in your bone marrow, leading to severe anemia, weakness, fatigue and often an enlarged spleen.Myelofibrosis is an uncommon type of chronic leukemia — a cancer that affects the blood-forming tissues in the body. Myelofibrosis belongs to a group of diseases called myeloproliferative disorders.Many people with myelofibrosis get progressively worse, and some may eventually develop a more serious form of leukemia. Yet it's also possible to have myelofibrosis and live symptom-free for years. Treatment for myelofibrosis, which focuses on relieving symptoms, can involve a variety of options.

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Myocardial ischemia occurs when blood flow to your heart is reduced, preventing it from receiving enough oxygen. The reduced blood flow is usually the result of a partial or complete blockage of your heart's arteries (coronary arteries).Myocardial ischemia, also called cardiac ischemia, can damage your heart muscle, reducing its ability to pump efficiently. A sudden, severe blockage of a coronary artery can lead to a heart attack. Myocardial ischemia might also cause serious abnormal heart rhythms.Treatment for myocardial ischemia involves improving blood flow to the heart muscle. Treatment may include medications, a procedure to open blocked arteries or bypass surgery.Making heart-healthy lifestyle choices is important in treating and preventing myocardial ischemia.


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Myocarditis is a disease marked by inflammation and damage of the heart muscle. Although the exact incidence of myocarditis is not known, it is estimated that several thousand patients per year are diagnosed in the United States. Myocarditis usually attacks otherwise healthy people. It is believed that 5 to 20% of all cases of sudden death in young adults are due to myocarditis.There are many causes of myocarditis, including viral infections, autoimmune diseases, environmental toxins, and adverse reactions to medications. The prognosis is variable but chronic heart failure is the major long term complication. Myocarditis and the associated disorder of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy are the cause of approximately 45% of heart transplants in the United States.Subscribe to the Myocarditis Foundation Newsletter to receive the latest news and real-life stories delivered right to your email inbox!

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Myoclonus refers to a sudden, brief, and involuntary muscle jerk. Healthy people can have myoclonus in the form of hiccups and “sleep starts”, which are the sudden jerky sensations that can occur as people fall asleep. Myoclonus can also occur due to underlying neurological disorders such as epilepsy, metabolic conditions, or adverse reactions to medications. Importantly, myoclonus is a symptom, not a diagnosis of a disease.Sudden positive muscle contractions are called positive myoclonus, whereas muscle relaxation is called negative myoclonus. Myoclonus can vary in frequency, and can occur alone or in a sequence. There are several underlying conditions that can give rise to myoclonus symptoms. Doctors aim to isolate and treat the underlying cause of myoclonus symptoms. When the underlying cause cannot be treated or cured, the aim of treatment is to alleviate severe myoclonus

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Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) refers to pain and presumed inflammation in the body's soft tissues or muscles. Myofascial pain is a chronic, painful condition that affects the fascia (connective tissue that covers the muscles). Myofascial pain syndrome might involve either a single muscle or a muscle group. In some cases, the area where a person experiences the pain might not be where the myofascial pain generator is located. Experts believe that the actual site of the injury or the strain prompts the development of a trigger point that, in turn, causes pain in other areas. This situation is known as referred pain.

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Myxofibrosarcoma is a common connective tissue neoplasm of malignant fibrocytes in a myxoid matrix favoring the extremities. Like many other tumors of connective tissue, soft tissue sarcoma exhibits high recurrence rates but is rarely known to metastasize. We present a patient with myxofibrosarcoma of the hand with metastases to the lungs, pleura, and mediastinum. The mediastinal metastasis presented clinically with gastrointestinal symptoms due to compression of the gastroesophageal junction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma of the hand and also the first report of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma to mediastinal lymph nodes at the level of the gastroesophageal junction. We also performed a comprehensive literature review of metastatic myxofibrosarcoma.

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Mammography is a specific type of breast imaging that uses low-dose x-rays to detect cancer early – before women experience symptoms – when it is most treatable. Tell your doctor about any breast symptoms or problems, prior surgeries, hormone use, whether you have a family or personal history of breast cancer, and if there’s a possibility you are pregnant. If possible, obtain copies of your prior mammograms and make them available to your radiologist on the day of your exam. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. Don’t wear deodorant, talcum powder or lotion under your arms or on your breasts as these may appear on the mammogram and interfere with correct diagnosis.

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Mammography plays a central part in early detection of breast cancers because it can show changes in the breast up to two years before a patient or physician can feel them. Current guidelines from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the American Cancer Society (ACS), the American Medical Association (AMA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) recommend screening mammography every year for women, beginning at age 40. Research has shown that annual mammograms lead to early detection of breast cancers, when they are most curable and breast-conservation therapies are available.


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A micturating cysto-urethrogram (or MCU) is a study using X-rays that shows the bladder and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder and out of the body) while passing urine (see children’s X-ray examination). The test is performed to find out if the urine goes from the bladder back up to the kidneys instead of out through the urethra, known as vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR). This can be the cause of recurrent urinary tract (in the bladder or kidneys) infection and kidney damage. The test also shows how the bladder empties and what the urethra looks like.This test is most commonly performed on children under six months of age, but can be used less commonly as an investigation for older children and adults with multiple recurrent urinary tract infections.


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MR angiography (MRA) uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to evaluate blood vessels and help identify abnormalities or diagnose atherosclerotic (plaque) disease. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and may require an injection of a contrast material called gadolinium, which is less likely to cause an allergic reaction than iodinated contrast material. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. In some instances, your doctor will provide you with a card that includes information about your implant to give to the technologist. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam.


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Constipation has a high prevalence in the general population and is a cause for significant morbidity. It has been estimated that approximately 10% of the Indian population suffers from constipation. [1] Chronic constipation leads to approximately 2.5 million visits to the physicians in the United States annually. [2] Various definitions have been used for chronic constipation. However, recently, the Rome II criteria were developed to promote consistency in the diagnosis. [3] Constipation may be primary or secondary. Primary constipation may be due to slow transit disorder or anorectal expulsion disorder (obstructive defecation) or a combination of these. According to the National Institute for health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines issued in 2010, obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) is characterized by the urge to defecate but an impaired ability to expel the fecal bolus. Symptoms include unsuccessful fecal evacuation attempts, excessive straining, pain, bleeding after defecation, and a sense of incomplete fecal evacuation. [4] Patients may also resort to digital rectal evacuation. Evaluation and treatment of these patients has been difficult. Magnetic resonance defecography (MRD) has been shown to demonstrate the structural abnormalities associated with ODS, and patients with significant structural abnormalities may benefit from surgical interventions like stapled transanal resection of rectum (STARR). Patients who do not demonstrate significant structural abnormalities can be referred for biofeedback techniques. We present our experience in a large series of patients with suspected ODS who underwent MRD at our tertiary care center.


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Mammography is a screening tool for breast cancer. At NM Medical we employ advanced digital imaging technology for the dual benefits of optimum diagnostic quality and maximum patient comfort. Mammography is important because in its earliest stages breast cancer may not be palpable; it may be too small to feel as a lump or tissue change. Mammography can help detect these changes two years or more before you would feel them. Physical examination is also important because pre-menopausal breast tissue is often dense and fibrous, which may decrease the reliability of mammography for young women.

  

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You can have peace of mind that we place you first with a focus on giving you comprehensive benefits, value for money and services to improve the quality of care available to you. As a Discovery Health Medical Scheme member you have access to the broadest and best level of healthcare cover in the market based on your medical condition needs. Depending on your medical aid plan, we cover for in- and out-hospital tests and screening, including investigations, radiology and blood tests, vaccinations for adults and children and blood tests


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MR spectroscopy (MRS) allows tissue to be interrogated for the presence and concentration of various metabolites. Grossman and Yousem said "If you need this to help you, go back to page 1; everything except Canavan has low NAA, high Choline". This is perhaps a little harsh, however it is fair to say that MRS often does not add a great deal to an overall MR study but does increase specificity, and may help in improving our ability to predict histological grade.


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Diffusion tensor imaging tractography, or DTI tractography, is an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) technique that measures the rate of water diffusion between cells to understand and create a map of the body’s internal structures; it is most commonly used to provide imaging of the brain. This advanced imaging technique, which provides much more detailed images of the brain than a conventional MRI, may also be used in the diagnosis of stroke, acute ischemia, brain tumors and multiple sclerosis, as well as pre-operative planning.  Using MRI technology, DTI tractography is non-invasive and uses radio waves and a magnetic field to produce images of the brain, tissues and skull. MRI technology provides detailed images showing small changes in body tissue and blood flow, which makes it an extremely reliable tool for the detection of disease, injury, bleeding and swelling.  Loyola offers state-of-the-art imaging and diagnostic techniques in order to provide timely and accurate diagnosis for our patients. Our expert radiologists are recognized nationally for clinical excellence, innovative diagnostic and therapeutic methods and skilled use of the latest technology. Our experienced technologists provide testing in a caring and compassionate environment where we want you to feel comfortable asking any questions you may have about your test or procedure. 


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Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography or MRCP uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to evaluate the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas and pancreatic duct for disease. It is noninvasive and does not use ionizing radiation. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam


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A magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) is a type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to provide pictures of blood vessels inside the body. In many cases MRA can provide information that can't be obtained from an X-ray, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scan. MRA can find problems with the blood vessels that may be causing reduced blood flow. With MRA, both the blood flow and the condition of the blood vessel walls can be seen. The test is often used to look at the blood vessels that go to the brain, kidneys, and legs. Information from an MRA can be saved and stored on a computer for further study. Photographs of selected views can also be made.During MRA, the area of the body being studied is placed inside an MRI machine. Contrast material is often used during MRA to make blood vessels show up more clearly.


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Ankle pain and ankle injuries are common. Physicians must carefully eliminate other conditions before making an ankle arthritis diagnosis. Physicians use a comprehensive approach that is verified by diagnostic imaging to arrive at a clinical diagnosis.Below is a description of the process physicians use to determine if a patient’s symptoms are caused by ankle osteoarthritis.

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Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has opened new horizons in the diagnosis and treatment of many musculoskeletal diseases of the ankle and foot. It demonstrates abnormalities in the bones and soft tissues before they become evident at other imaging modalities. The exquisite soft-tissue contrast resolution, noninvasive nature, and multiplanar capabilities of MR imaging make it especially valuable for the detection and assessment of a variety of soft-tissue disorders of the ligaments (eg, sprain), tendons (tendinosis, peritendinosis, tenosynovitis, entrapment, rupture, dislocation), and other soft-tissue structures (eg, anterolateral impingement syndrome, sinus tarsi syndrome, compressive neuropathies [eg, tarsal tunnel syndrome, Morton neuroma], synovial disorders). MR imaging has also been shown to be highly sensitive in the detection and staging of a number of musculoskeletal infections including cellulitis, soft-tissue abscesses, and osteomyelitis. In addition, MR imaging is excellent for the early detection and assessment of a number of osseous abnormalities such as bone contusions, stress and insufficiency fractures, osteochondral fractures, osteonecrosis, and transient bone marrow edema. MR imaging is increasingly being recognized as the modality of choice for assessment of pathologic conditions of the ankle and foot.


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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is a safe and painless test that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce detailed images of the brain and the brain stem. An MRI differs from a CAT scan (also called a CT scan or a computed axial tomography scan) because it does not use radiation. An MRI scanner consists of a large doughnut-shaped magnet that often has a tunnel in the center. Patients are placed on a table that slides into the tunnel. Some centers have open MRI machines that have larger openings and are helpful for patients with claustrophobia. MRI machines are located in hospitals and radiology centers. During the exam, radio waves manipulate the magnetic position of the atoms of the body, which are picked up by a powerful antenna and sent to a computer. The computer performs millions of calculations, resulting in clear, cross-sectional black and white images of the body. These images can be converted into three-dimensional (3-D) pictures of the scanned area. This helps pinpoint problems in the brain and the brain stem when the scan focuses on those areas.


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Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a highly advanced imaging modality. Epilepsy Protocol MRI involves obtaining images of brain slices through MRI scanning in epileptic patients. This scanning enables the doctor in obtaining evidences of abnormalities or injuries in brain. Underlying pathologies inside of brain like infections or tumors cannot be seen externally. Such occurrences can be investigated through an MRI Epilepsy Protocol. As a result, MRI becomes the most accurate mode for planning line of treatment.


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HE  MRI technician should be informed if you have any inner ear implants, artificial joints, a defibrillator or pacemaker, particular types of heart valves, vascular stents, brain aneurysm clips.

The staff will ask you to remove anything that contains metal, including jewelry, sunglasses or any electronic gadgets. All these interferes with the MRI machine’s ability to produce a clear image. Braces and dental fillings will typically not pose a problem, but pens, pins, and certain dental appliances can interfere. 

In the case of implants and pacemakers, those items can stop working properly due to an MRI’s magnetic field.

You will be asked to wear a hospital gown or clothing that doesn’t contain metal fasteners. 

Lastly if you’re pregnant , kindly inform the staff, the doctor may postponed the test if required.

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the structures within the chest. It is primarily used to assess abnormal masses such as cancer and determine the size, extent and degree of its spread to adjacent structures. It’s also used to assess the anatomy and function of the heart and its blood flow. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam.


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CSF flow studies are performed using a variety of MRI techniques and are able to qualitatively assess and quantify pulsatile CSF flow. The most common technique used is time resolved 2D phase contrast MRI with velocity encoding. Note, when referring to CSF flow in the setting on imaging we are referring to pulsatile to-and-fro flow due to vascular pulsations rather than bulk transport of CSF (the mechanism by which produced CSF is absorbed, via absorption at arachnoid granulations and via the glymphatic pathway). The latter is too slow to be easily assessed clinically. 


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The anatomy of the craniovertebral junction, although complex, may be well visualized by routine MR imaging. This essay discusses the anatomy of the complex articulations of the craniovertebral junction. Representative MR images and gross anatomic photographs are presented to illustrate the intricate ligamentous and articular anatomy. Knowledge of the normal anatomy of the occipitoatlantoaxial region is necessary in order to understand the common disorders that affect this area. The most common disorders are trauma and arthropathies, but also include congenital abnormalities and neoplasm. The resultant abnormal mechanics may lead to neurologic sequelae or pain

 

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 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the dorsal spine is a non invasive process used to scan the dorsal section of your spinal cord. It uses radio waves and high intensity magnetic fields to learn about the internal tissue structures of the dorsal spine. This scanning technique is used for various diagnostic as well as treatment purposes


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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. MR imaging uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (X-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to better evaluate various parts of the body and determine the presence of certain diseases that may not be assessed adequately with other imaging methods such as x-ray, ultrasound or computed tomography (also called CT or CAT scanning)


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The right hip pain diagnosis is essential to obtaining the right care. Specialization and unmatched experience are the hallmarks of the Center for Hip Preservation’s medical staff. The advanced hip pain tests available at our center assist our specialists in making the right diagnosis and pursuing the right treatment. Both a physical examination and radiological examinations are conducted to diagnose hip joint pain. Without an official reading by an experienced radiologist, subtle X-ray findings (e.g., tears, infections, systematic diseases, tumors, etc.) may remain undetected until such time as an abnormality has progressed to the point where a non-imaging specialist may identify it. Delays in diagnosis add to medical cost and may considerably effect treatment and ultimate patient outcome. The skilled staff members at the Center for Hip Preservation help patients and families understand their hip pain and all of the treatment options available.


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Hip pain is a common and disabling condition that affects patients of all ages. The differential diagnosis of hip pain is broad, presenting a diagnostic challenge. Patients often express that their hip pain is localized to one of three anatomic regions: the anterior hip and groin, the posterior hip and buttock, or the lateral hip. Anterior hip and groin pain is commonly associated with intra-articular pathology, such as osteoarthritis and hip labral tears. Posterior hip pain is associated with piriformis syndrome, sacroiliac joint dysfunction, lumbar radiculopathy, and less commonly ischiofemoral impingement and vascular claudication. Lateral hip pain occurs with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Clinical examination tests, although helpful, are not highly sensitive or specific for most diagnoses; however, a rational approach to the hip examination can be used. Radiography should be performed if acute fracture, dislocations, or stress fractures are suspected. Initial plain radiography of the hip should include an anteroposterior view of the pelvis and frog-leg lateral view of the symptomatic hip. Magnetic resonance imaging should be performed if the history and plain radiograph results are not diagnostic. Magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for the detection of occult traumatic fractures, stress fractures, and osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Magnetic resonance arthrography is the diagnostic test of choice for labral tears.


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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the structures within the knee joint. It is typically used to help diagnose or evaluate pain, weakness, swelling or bleeding in and around the joint. Knee MRI does not use ionizing radiation, and it can help determine whether you require surgery. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam.


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 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test done with a large machine that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures inside the belly. In many cases MRI gives information about structures in the body that cannot be seen as well with an X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scan. For an MRI test, you are placed inside the magnet so that your belly is inside the strong magnetic field. MRI can find changes in the structure of organs or other tissues. It also can find tissue damage or disease, such as infection or a tumor. Pictures from an MRI scan are digital images that can be saved and stored on a computer for further study. The images also can be reviewed remotely, such as in a clinic or an operating room. Photographs or films of selected pictures can also be made.In some cases, contrast material may be used during the MRI scan to show certain structures more clearly in the pictures. The contrast material may be used to check blood flow, find some types of tumors, and show areas of inflammation or infection.


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 An MRI scan uses magnets and radio waves to capture images inside your body without making a surgical incision. The scan allows your doctor to see the soft tissue of your body, like muscles and organs, in addition to your bones. An MRI can be performed on any part of your body. A lumbar MRI specifically examines the lumbar section of your spine — the region where back problems commonly originate.The lumbosacral spine is made up of the five lumbar vertebral bones (L1 thru L5), the sacrum (the bony “shield” at the bottom of your spine), and the coccyx (tailbone). The lumbosacral spine also consists of large blood vessels, nerves, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage.


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Myelography uses a real-time form of x-ray called fluoroscopy and an injection of contrast material to evaluate the spinal cord, nerve roots and spinal lining (meninges). It is particularly useful for assessing the spine following surgery and for assessing disc abnormalities in patients who cannot undergo MRI. You will be instructed on how to prepare. Tell your doctor if there’s a possibility you are pregnant and discuss any recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications you’re taking and allergies, especially to iodinated contrast materials. You may be advised to stop taking blood thinners or other medications several days prior to your exam. You also may be told to avoid solid food and increase your fluid intake beforehand. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown.


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Neoplastic disease of the nose, paranasal sinuses, the nasopharynx and the parapharyngeal space requires thorough assessment of location and extent in order to plan appropriate treatment. CT allows the deep soft tissue planes to be evaluated and provides a complement to the physical examination. It is especially helpful in regions involving thin bony structures (paranasal sinuses, orbita); here CT performs better than MRI. MRI possesses many advantages over other imaging modalities caused by its excellent tissue contrast. In evaluating regions involving predominantly soft tissue structures (ec nasopharynx and parapharyngeal space) MRI is superior to CT. The possibility to obtain strictly consecutive volume data sets with spiral CT or 3D MRI offer excellent perspectives to visualize the data via 2D or 3D postprocessing. Because head and neck tumors reside in a complex area, having a 3D model of the anatomical features may assist in the delineation of pathology. Data sets may be transferred directly into computer systems and thus be used in computer assisted surgery.


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Head and neck MRI uses a strong magnetic field combined with radiofrequency waves to create highly detailed, cross-sectional images of internal structures in the head and neck area; these scans are examined for abnormalities. For certain studies, an MRI contrast dye such as gadolinium may be injected to provide better definition of soft tissues and blood vessels and thus enhance the images. Head and neck MRI is used to detect abnormalities outside of the skull.


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Orbit/Face MRI is a painless radiology exam which may be performed to help visualize the face area in a non-invasive manner. It aids doctors in visualizing tumors, infection, inflammation, and any neck disorders that a patient might have.


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A pelvis MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan is an imaging test that uses a machine with powerful magnets and radio waves to create pictures of the area between the hip bones. This part of the body is called the pelvic area. Structures inside and near the pelvis include the bladder, prostate and other male reproductive organs, female reproductive organs, lymph nodes, large bowel, small bowel, and pelvic bones. An MRI does not use radiation. Single MRI images are called slices. The images are stored on a computer or printed on film. One exam produces dozens or sometimes hundreds of images.


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Pituitary gland plays a central role in body growth, metabolism, and reproductive function. A number of diseases that affect the pituitary-hypothalamic axis can have profound clinical, endocrinological as well as neurological consequences. These conditions can be classified as neoplastic, infectious, inflammatory, posttraumatic, congenital/developmental, and physiological. Various neoplastic conditions include pituitary adenoma/apoplexy, hypothalamic glioma, craniopharyngioma, rathke cleft cyst, germinoma, teratoma, metastasis, leukemic infiltration, lymphoma, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Infectious and inflammatory causes include tubercular/lymphocytic hypophysitis, sarcoidosis, and Wegener's granulomatosis. Traumatic causes include postoperative sella or transection of the pituitary stalk. Accurate diagnostic differentiation of these lesions is essential for both safe and effective disease management. Recent advances in neuroimaging helps the radiologists and endocrinologists to study the pituitary region in greater detail. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice for evaluating hypothalamic-pituitary-related endocrine diseases.

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the bones, tendons, muscles and blood vessels within the shoulder joint. It is primarily used to assess injuries. Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam.


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Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is a common condition that is best evaluated with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The first step in MR imaging of the TMJ is to evaluate the articular disk, or meniscus, in terms of its morphologic features and its location relative to the condyle in both closed- and open-mouth positions. Disk location is of prime importance because the presence of a displaced disk is a critical sign of TMJ dysfunction. However, disk displacement is also frequently seen in asymptomatic volunteers, so that other findings may be required to help make the diagnosis. These findings include thickening of an attachment of the lateral pterygoid muscle, rupture of retrodiskal layers, and joint effusion and can serve as indirect early signs of TMJ dysfunction. It is important for the radiologist to detect early MR imaging signs of dysfunction, thereby avoiding the evolution of this condition to its final stage, an advanced and irreversible phase that is characterized by osteoarthritic changes such as condylar flattening or osteophytes. Further studies conducted with the latest MR imaging techniques will allow a better understanding of the sources of TMJ pain and of any discrepancy between imaging findings and patient symptoms.


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The purpose of this study was to correlate disc position and the type of disc displacement, intra-capsular effusion and degenerative changes of the condyle as demonstrated in MRI studies. In this study, 126 temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 63 patients with TMJ disorders were investigated using clinical examination and MRI. One hundred and twelve TMJs were found to have internal derangement as disc displacement. The angle between the posterior margin of the disc and the vertical line drawn through the centre of the condyle was measured on MRI for each TMJ. The positions of the discs were normal, 0 degrees-10 degrees, in 11.11%; slightly displaced, 11 degrees-30 degrees, in 37.30%; mildly displaced 31 degrees-50 degrees, in 15.08%; moderately displaced, 51 degrees-80 degrees, in 7.14% of the TMJs with anterior displacement with reduction (ADDR). The disc position was severely displaced anteriorly, as over 80 degrees, in all TMJs with anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADD), constituting 27.78% of all cases. We found that the smaller the degree of disc displacement the milder the internal derangement and that the intra-capsular effusion was more frequently associated with TMJ with ADDR. The degenerative condylar changes were more severe with an increased degree of anterior disc displacement.


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Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a special type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam that produces detailed images of the hepatobiliary and pancreatic systems, including the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas and pancreatic duct. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose and treat medical conditions.MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays). Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various parts of the body and determine the presence of certain diseases.

Doctors use MRCP to examine diseases of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas and pancreatic duct. These may include tumours, stones, inflammation or infection evaluate patients with pancreatitis to detect the underlying cause. In patients with pancreatitis, an MRCP may be performed using a medication called Secretin to assess for long term scarring and to determine the amount of healthy pancreatic function and secretions help to diagnose unexplained abdominal pain and provide a less invasive alternative to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). ERCP is a diagnostic procedure that combines endoscopy, which uses an illuminated optical instrument to examine inside the body, with iodinated contrast injection and x-ray images. You may be asked to wear a gown during the exam or you may be allowed to wear your own clothing if it is loose-fitting and has no metal fasteners. Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary. Usually, you will be instructed not to eat or drink anything for several hours before your procedure.Jewellery and other accessories should be left at home if possible, or removed prior to the MRI scan. Because they can interfere with the magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. In general, metal objects used in orthopaedic surgery pose no risk during MRI. However, a recently placed artificial joint may require the use of another imaging procedure. If there is any question of their presence, an x-ray may be taken to detect and identify any metal objects.


You will usually be alone in the exam room during the MRI procedure. However, the technologist will be able to see, hear and speak with you at all times using a two-way intercom. Many MRI centres allow a friend or parent to stay in the room as long as they are also screened for safety in the magnetic environment.  A radiologist, a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations, will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician, who will share the results with you.


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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an advanced medical imaging technique that does not use x-rays or radiation. Instead it uses a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer. This creates very clear pictures of internal body structures. An MRI is used to examine soft tissues like organs, muscles, tendons, & blood vessels in many parts of the body. This includes areas of the brain, spine, abdomen, chest, pelvis, and joints (like knees and shoulders). The MRI image offers unique information to help your doctor better plan your treatment and care.


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A Whole Spine MRI Scan is an imaging test done to access the spinal anatomy and investigate the causes of a patient's back pain. The MRI can find changes in the spine and other tissues. MRI scans are needed when other imaging tests like X-ray, and CT scan fails to obtain any critical information and conservative treatment has stopped working or responding well. A Whole Spine MRI Scan is recommended to better diagnose the problems with your spine and provide an alternative treatment. The MRI Scan can also find problems such as infection or a tumour.


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Magnesium is important to the functioning of your body and can be found in many common foods. Rich magnesium sources include green vegetables, nuts, seeds, and beans. Your tap water may also contain magnesium. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), this mineral plays a role in more than 300 of your body’s biochemical reactions. For example, it helps regulate blood pressure and your heartbeat. It also helps maintain bone strength.Having too little magnesium in your body can negatively affect all of these functions. It’s possible to have too much magnesium as well.If your doctor suspects that your magnesium level is too low or too high, they may order a serum magnesium test. This test involves a basic blood draw. Your doctor will collect some of your blood into a vial or tube and send it to a lab for testing.


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Malaria antigen detection tests are a group of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests of the rapid antigen test type that allow quick diagnosis of malaria by people who are not otherwise skilled in traditional laboratory techniques for diagnosing malaria or in situations where such equipment is not available. There are currently over 20 such tests commercially available (WHO product testing 2008). The first malaria antigen suitable as target for such a test was a soluble glycolytic enzyme Glutamate dehydrogenase.[1][2][3] None of the rapid tests are currently as sensitive as a thick blood film, nor as cheap. A major drawback in the use of all current dipstick methods is that the result is essentially qualitative. In many endemic areas of tropical Africa, however, the quantitative assessment of parasitaemia is important, as a large percentage of the population will test positive in any qualitative assay.

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The mainstay of malaria diagnosis has been the microscopic examination of blood, utilizing blood films.[1] Although blood is the sample most frequently used to make a diagnosis, both saliva and urine have been investigated as alternative, less invasive specimens.[2] More recently, modern techniques utilizing antigen tests or polymerase chain reaction have been discovered, though these are not widely implemented in malaria endemic regions.[3][4] Areas that cannot afford laboratory diagnostic tests often use only a history of subjective fever as the indication to treat for malaria

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Red blood cell (RBC) indices are individual components of a routine blood test called the complete blood count (CBC). The CBC is used to measure the quantity and physical characteristics of different types of cells found in your blood.

Blood consists of RBCs, white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets that are suspended in your plasma. Platelets are cells that enable clot formation. RBCs contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen throughout your body to all of your tissues and organs. An RBC is pale red and gets its color from hemoglobin. It’s shaped like a doughnut, but it has a thinner area in the middle instead of a hole. Your RBCs are normally all the same color, size, and shape. However, certain conditions can cause variations that impair their ability to function properly.  The RBC indices measure the size, shape, and physical characteristics of the RBCs. Your doctor can use RBC indices to help diagnose the cause of anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder in which you have too few, misshapen, or poorly functional RBCs.





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MCH stands for Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin, and is a calculation of the average amount of hemoglobin contained within each of a person's red blood cells. Hemoglobin is the substance that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body through the bloodstream. Abnormally high or low levels of MCH, as determined by blood testing, can be an indication of a number of problems within the body, ranging from nutrient deficiencies to chronic diseases.The MCH blood test is done as a component of a blood test called a Complete Blood Count (CBC), which evaluates the composition of the blood, checking hematocrit, white blood cells (WBC) and platelets as well as hemoglobin and red blood cells (RBC). It is usually ordered to get an overview of general health. MCH is not measured directly, but calculated based on the hemoglobin value (Hgb), which is the total measure of hemoglobin in the blood, and the RBC, which is the number of red blood cells in the blood. To calculate MCH, the Hgb is divided by RCB, yielding an average amount of hemoglobin per red blood cell. Normal levels of MCH are between 26 and 33 picograms (pg) of hemoglobin per RBC.


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The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is the average concentration of hemoglobin in your red blood cells. Hemoglobin is the protein molecule that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen to tissues within your body. Your MCHC can fall into low, normal, and high ranges even if your red blood cell count is normal.


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MCV stands for mean corpuscular volume. There are three main types of corpuscles (blood cells) in your blood–red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. An MCV blood test measures the average size of your red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells move oxygen from your lungs to every cell in your body. Your cells need oxygen to grow, reproduce, and stay healthy. If your red blood cells are too small or too large, it could be a sign of a blood disorder such as anemia, a vitamin deficiency, or other medical condition.


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A rubella blood test detects antibodies that are made by the immune system to help kill the rubella virus. These antibodies remain in the bloodstream for years. The presence of certain antibodies means a recent infection, a past infection, or that you have been vaccinated against the disease. Rubella (also called German measles or 3-day measles) usually does not cause long-term problems. But a woman infected with the rubella virus during pregnancy can transmit the disease to her baby (fetus). And serious birth defects called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) could develop, especially during the first trimester. Birth defects of CRS include cataracts and other eye problems, hearing impairment, and heart disease. Miscarriage and stillbirth are also possible consequences for pregnant women. The vaccination to prevent rubella protects against these complications.A rubella test is usually done for a woman who is or wants to become pregnant to determine whether she is at risk for rubella. Several laboratory methods can be used to detect rubella antibodies in the blood. The most commonly used method is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, EIA).


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Filariasis is a disease resulting from parasitization by thread like of filiform worms called filariae. The embryos circulate in lymphatic tissues and blood as microfilaria leading to Lymphangitis, Lymphadenitis, Elephantiasis and Tropical eosinophilia


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The mitochondria create energy for the cells in your body to use. They’re critical to the normal functioning of all cells.Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) are an example of an autoimmune response that occurs when the body turns against its own cells, tissues, and organs. When this happens, the immune system attacks the body as though it were an infection. The AMA test identifies elevated levels of these antibodies in your blood. The test is most often used to detect an autoimmune condition known as primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), previously known as primary biliary cirrhosis.


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Mononucleosis is a viral infection caused by the Epstein Barr virus and is common in adolescents and young adults. Often times, there are no symptoms, but others feel tired, feverish, have a sore throat, etc. The Mononucleosis Test (Qualitative) will detect what’s called ‘heterophil antibodies’ in your blood (related to mono). Keep in mind, if you’ve had mononucleosis in the past, you will always test positive for it.


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Tuberculin is a glycerol extract of the tubercle bacillus. Purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin is a precipitate of species-nonspecific molecules obtained from filtrates of sterilized, concentrated cultures. The tuberculin reaction was first described by Robert Koch in 1890. The test was first developed and described by the German physician Felix Mendel in 1908 [1] It is named after Charles Mantoux, a French physician who built on the work of Koch and Clemens von Pirquet to create his test in 1907. However, the test was unreliable due to impurities in tuberculin which tended to cause false results.[2] Esmond R. Long and Florence B. Seibert identified the active agent in tuberculin as a protein. Seibert then spent a number of years developing methods for separating and purifying the protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, obtaining purified protein derivative (PPD) and enabling the creation of a reliable test for tuberculosis.[2] Her first publication on the purification of tuberculin appeared in 1934.[3] By the 1940s, Seibert's PPD was the international standard for tuberculin tests.[4] In 1939, M. A. Linnikova in the USSR created a modified version of PPD. In 1954, the Soviet Union started mass production of PPD-L, named after Linnikova.[c


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The mumps virus is a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses, which include parainfluenza virus serotypes 1-4, measles, respiratory syncytial virus, and metapneumovirus. Mumps is highly infectious among unvaccinated individuals and is typically transmitted through inhalation of infected respiratory droplets or secretions. Following an approximately 2-week incubation period, symptom onset is typically acute with a prodrome of low-grade fever, headache, and malaise.(1,2) Painful enlargement of the salivary glands, the hallmark of mumps, occurs in approximately 60% to 70% of infections and in 95% of patients with symptoms. Testicular pain (orchitis) occurs in approximately 15% to 30% of postpubertal men and abdominal pain (oophoritis) is found in 5% of postpubertal women.(1) Other complications include mumps-associated pancreatitis (<5% of cases) and central nervous system disease (meningitis <10% and encephalitis <1%).

Widespread routine immunization of infants with attenuated mumps virus has dramatically decreased the number of reported mumps cases in the United States. However, outbreaks continue to occur, indicating persistence of the virus in the general population. Laboratory diagnosis of mumps is typically accomplished by detection of IgM- and IgG-class antibodies to the mumps virus. However, due to the widespread mumps vaccination program, in clinically suspected cases of acute mumps infection, serologic testing should be supplemented with virus isolation in culture or detection of viral nucleic acid by PCR in throat, saliva, or urine specimens.


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Mycobacterioses (tuberculosis, leprosy, atypical mycobacterioses, paratuberculosis, and perhaps

Crohn’s Disease) are the infectious diseases of men and animals with the largest diffusion on earth.

The infectious agents of tuberculosis are acid-resistant rod-like formed bacteria of the family

Mycobacteriaceae, genus Mycobacterium. The germ was detected by Robert Koch in 1882. Owing

to the very high infectious power of pathogenic mycobacteria, early diagnosis is essential to

prevent spreading of the disease. Convergence of various approaches are necessary to control the

mycobacterioses, immune reactions and bacterial shedding being variable during the diseases.

However, usual diagnostic procedures were up to now unsatisfactory and did not allow to

distinguish among different mycobacterial species. The illness is normally transferred by droplets

of saliva from infected persons. The target of the infection are mostly the lungs, but also other

organs like the brain, intestinal tract, bones, lymph nodes and kidneys can be afflicted.

Tuberculosis is not only found in developing countries with 8 million of new infections yearly, but

also in industrialized civilizations, as an actual disease with some thousands of cases yearly.

Without treatment, the disease leads in 50% of the cases to death within less than two years.

Clinical symptoms are fatigue, loss of weight, lack of appetite, light fever, nocturnal sweat and

pain in the chest. Especially patients with HIV are threatened by tuberculosis due to their impaired

immune system. A vaccination with living attenuated bacteria is possible (BCG = Bacille Calmette

Guérin). This is mostly done with newborn or young children. With older patients, before the

vaccination there is normally performed the tuberculin test (Pirquet or Mantoux), where a small

amount of tuberculin is injected under the skin. In a positive case, there exist antibodies against

Mycobacteria, and a vaccination is not necessary. Up to recently, there have not existed any

serological methods to detect tuberculosis antibodies in serum. The only available procedure was

besides the skin tuberculin test the direct microscopical identification of the dyed bacteria in

sputum. Meanwhile specific antigens have been prepared either by purification of natural material

or by recombinant methods. This ELISA test kit for the determination of IgG antibodies uses a

cocktail of highly pure proteins in order to determine an immune response against the bacteria in

human serum. A fresh or chronically active infection can be diagnosed by IgA and IgM tests,

which are also available. 




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In order to establish a rapid and stable method for diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and minimize the side effects of delayed diagnosis on patients and health system, a cross sectional study was carried out. Since, the infection rate with this bacteria increasing and one of the reasons for this increase is long process of laboratory identification, therefore establishing new diagnosis methods could decrease disease rate. To achieve this aim, collected sputum and blood specimens from 50 patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis were studied with both traditional, acid-fast stain (AFB) and culture method compare to Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) (IgG and IgM) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods. The sensitivity and specificity of all methods were determined by using the PCR results as the gold standard. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of AFB were 17.64, 100, 100 and 70.12%. These values for culture method was 29.41, 100, 100 and 73.33% and for IgG antibody were 66.7, 81.81, 64.7 and 81.81% and IgM antibody were 70.58, 90.9, 80 and 85.71%, respectively. It was concluded that maximum sensitivity and specificity can be achieved by PCR method.

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This test provides a measure of myelin fragments released into the spinal fluid as a result of the breakdown of myelin during acute phases in the course of demyelinating disease of the CNS (most common example of which is multiple sclerosis). MBP is a 169 amino acid peptide that comprises 30% of the protein of the myelin sheath. While MBP is a useful test in the diagnosis of active MS, some patients with this disorder will have normal limits, especially during remissions, and elevations may be seen in other disorders as well. Therefore, tests such as CSF oligoclonal bands and IgG index, which are positive in 90% of MS patients during active disease or remission, are preferred for the initial diagnosis. However, MBP is useful for providing objective evidence of disease activity.

CSF MBP levels were found to decrease to the level of controls in a group of 11 cases of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy (cyclophosphamide and prednisone). These findings suggest that MBP might be used to monitor the hoped for beneficial effect of such therapy in some cases of MS.

It has been suggested that MBP levels in the CSF might be used in the assessment of radiation-induced myelopathy. MS patients in relapse have been shown to have increased interleukin 1 and interleukin 2 production as the result of MBP stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells.



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Myoglobin is a small, oxygen-binding protein found in heart and skeletal muscles. It traps oxygen within muscle cells, allowing the cells to produce the energy required for muscular contraction. When heart or skeletal muscle is injured, myoglobin is released into the blood. Elevated levels can be measured within a few hours following an injury.
Myoglobin is filtered from the blood by the kidneys and is released into the urine. Large quantities of myoglobin are toxic to the kidneys. If significant amounts of myoglobin are released into the bloodstream, which can happen after severe trauma or muscle injuries, the excess myoglobin may cause damage to the kidneys and eventually result in kidney failure. Measurement of myoglobin in urine helps to detect this condition.


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If you’re here, you’ve probably just been diagnosed, or suspect you have Macular Degeneration, or someone you care about has just been diagnosed or suspects they have the disease.

This entire site is dedicated to information regarding Macular Degeneration, but this page will give you a quick general overview to get you oriented.

Macular Degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss, affecting more than 10 million Americans – more than cataracts and glaucoma combined.

Macular Degeneration is caused by the deterioration of the central portion of the retina, the inside back layer of the eye that records the images we see and sends them via the optic nerve from the eye to the brain. The retina’s central portion, known as the macula, is responsible for focusing central vision in the eye, and it controls our ability to read, drive a car, recognize faces or colors, and see objects in fine detail.

Illustrations of the anatomy of a normal human eye and loss of central vision:

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There are no shortcuts to growing luscious, long locks. On average, hair grows about a half an inch per month. Your general health, well-being, and genetic factors affect your rate of hair growth.You can encourage hair growth by maintaining healthy hair through a good diet and proper hair care. Certain herbs can help make your hair grow faster, too.

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A breast infection, also known as mastitis, is an infection that occurs within the tissue of the breast. Breast infections are most common among women who are breastfeeding, when bacteria from a baby’s mouth enters and infects the breast. This is also known as lactation mastitis. Mastitis also occurs in women who aren’t breastfeeding, but this is not as common.Infection typically affects the fatty tissue in the breast, causing swelling, lumps, and pain. Although most infections are due to breastfeeding or clogged milk ducts, a small percentage of breast infections are associated with rare kinds of breast cancer.


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Measles, or rubeola, is a viral infection of the respiratory system. Measles is a very contagious disease that can spread through contact with infected mucus and saliva. An infected person can release the infection into the air when they cough or sneeze.The measles virus can live on surfaces for several hours. As the infected particles enter the air and settle on surfaces, anyone within close proximity can become infected.

Drinking from an infected person’s glass, or sharing eating utensils with an infected person, increases your risk of infection.Measles is a leading cause of death in children. Of the 114,900 global deaths related to measles in 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that most of the victims were under the age of 5Contact a doctor immediately if you suspect you have measles. If you have not received a measles vaccine and you come into contact with an infected person, visit your doctor to receive a measles vaccine within 72 hours of contact to prevent infection. You can also prevent an infection with a dose of immunoglobulin taken within six days of contact with an infected person.


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A normal mole is usually an evenly colored brown, tan, or black spot on the skin. It can be either flat or raised. It can be round or oval. Moles are generally less than 6 millimeters (about ¼ inch) across (about the width of a pencil eraser). Some moles can be present at birth, but most appear during childhood or young adulthood. New moles that appear later in life should be checked by a doctor.

Once a mole has developed, it will usually stay the same size, shape, and color for many years. Some moles may eventually fade away.Most people have moles, and almost all moles are harmless. But it’s important to recognize changes in a mole – such as in its size, shape, or color – that can suggest a melanoma may be developing.


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Melasma is a very common patchy brown, tan, or blue-gray facial skin discoloration, usually seen in women in the reproductive years. It typically appears on the upper cheeks, upper lip, forehead, and chin of women 20-50 years of age. Although possible, it is uncommon in males. Most of those with melasma are women. It is thought to be primarily related to external sun exposure, external hormones like birth control pills, and internal hormonal changes as seen in pregnancy. Most people with melasma have a history of daily or intermittent sun exposure, although heat is also suspected to be an underlying factor. Melasma is most common among pregnant women, especially those of Latin and Asian descents. People with olive or darker skin, like Hispanic, Asian, and Middle Eastern individuals, have higher incidences of melasma.

Prevention is primarily aimed at facial sun protection and sun avoidance. Treatment requires regular sunscreen application, medications such as 4% hydroquinone and other fading creams.


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There is no such thing as a "bad memory", and anyone can improve their memory, as long as you are not suffering from memory loss as a medical condition. If you want to improve your memory, there are a number of things you can do, from eating blueberries to using a variety of mnemonic devices. If you're optimistic and dedicated, you'll be able to improve your memory, whether you want to win the World Memory Championships, ace your history test, or simply remember where you put your keys.

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Menopause is defined as the absence of menstrual periods for 12 months. It is the time in a woman's life when the function of the ovaries ceases.The process of menopause does not occur overnight, but rather is a gradual process. This so-called perimenopausal transition period is a different experience for each woman.The average age of menopause is 51 years old, but menopause may occur as early as the 30s or as late as the 60s. There is no reliable lab test to predict when a woman will experience menopause.The age at which a woman starts having menstrual periods is not related to the age of menopause onset.

Symptoms of menopause can include abnormal vaginal bleeding, hot flashes, vaginal and urinary symptoms, and mood changes.Complications that women may develop after menopause include osteoporosis and heart disease.Treatments for menopause are customized for each woman.Treatments are directed toward alleviating uncomfortable or distressing symptoms.

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Men's health refers to a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, as experienced by men, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. These often relate to structures such as male genitalia or to conditions caused by hormones specific to, or most notable in, males.


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Heavy menstrual bleeding (called menorrhagia by health care professionals) is defined as soaking a pad and/or tampon every hour or less during each menstrual cycle. For many women, heavy menstrual bleeding is a huge obstacle to their lifestyles. Have you ever had to reschedule an activity around your menstrual period? Then, you know the toll it can take. You may not know that heavy bleeding can be more than a schedule buster. The heavy bleeding can also lead to iron-deficient anemia, the most common health-related threat of menorrhagia. While most cases of anemia are easily treated with oral iron supplements, sometimes the bleeding is so severe a woman's entire volume of blood drops, leading to shortness of breath, severe fatigue and heart palpitations that require hospitalization.


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Making the right diagnosis, finding a mental health professional and obtaining health insurance coverage are the main challenges families face. Many insurers do not provide equal benefits for mental health services as they do for other general medical services. There are often long waiting lists to receive quality services. Patients who have a "dual diagnosis" of developmental and/or medical conditions along with their mental health condition seem to have the most difficulty finding appropriate services.Cincinnati Children's has compiled a list of Greater Cincinnati and national resources that provide mental health services.

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Here's a secret: slaving away inside your body—right this minute—is your very own personal trainer working tirelessly to help you burn calories and shed fat. It's called your metabolism, and it's the sum of everything your body does. Each time you eat, enzymes in your body's cells break down the food and turn it into energy that keeps your heart beating, your mind thinking, and your legs churning during a grueling workout. A fast metabolism means more calories burned. The more you burn, the easier it is to drop pounds. And get this—you can make increase you metabolism so it works harder, a lot harder, 24 hours a day.To some degree, our bodies hum along at a preset speed determined by gender and genetics, but there's still plenty of wiggle room. "You have a huge amount of control over your metabolic rate," says John Berardi, Ph.D., C.S.C.S., author of The Metabolism Advantage. "You can't affect how many calories it takes to keep your heart beating, but you can burn an extra 500 to 600 calories a day by exercising properly and eating right." And by making a few changes to your routine.To make those changes simpler, we enlisted the help of leading experts and came up with a round-the-clock, turn-up-the-burn plan complete with new moves that will throw that slow metabolism into overdrive.


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Nutrition & Metabolism publishes studies with a clear focus on nutrition and metabolism with applications ranging from nutrition needs, exercise physiology, clinical and population studies, as well as the underlying mechanisms in these aspects.The areas of interest for Nutrition & Metabolism encompass studies in molecular nutrition in the context of obesity, diabetes, lipedemias, metabolic syndrome and exercise physiology. Manuscripts related to molecular, cellular and human metabolism, nutrient sensing and nutrient–gene interactions are also in interest, as are submissions that have employed new and innovative strategies like metabolomics/lipidomics or other omic-based biomarkers to predict nutritional status and metabolic diseases


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माइग्रेन एक प्रकार का न्यूरोवेस्कुलर विकार (Neurovascular Disorder) है जिसमें सिर में रूक-रूक कर दर्द होता है। हालांकि माइग्रेन के समय मस्तिष्क की सटीक क्रियाविधि (The Exact Mechanism) की जानकारी नहीं है लेकिन ऐसा माना जाता है की माइग्रेन के समय दिमाग में रक्त का संचार बढ़ जाता है जिससे व्यक्ति को तेज सिरदर्द होने लगता है।

माइग्रेन सेरेब्रल कॉर्टेक्स (Cerebral Cortex) की बढ़ी हुई उत्तेजना तथा ब्रेनस्टेम (Brainstem) के ट्राइगेमिनल न्यूक्लियस (Trigeminal Nucleus) में दर्द के न्यूरॉन्स (Pain Neurons) के असामान्य नियंत्रण से संबंधित है।

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Migraine is a  neurological disorder often described as intense pulsing or throbbing pain in one area of the head. Typically the headache is unilateral (affecting one half of the head) and pulsating in nature, lasting from 2 to 72 hours.

Migraines are believed to be due to a mixture of environmental and genetic factors . Migraines typically present with self-limited, recurrent severe headache associated with autonomic symptoms.

 

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A migraine is usually a moderate or severe headache felt as a throbbing pain on one side of the head.Many people also have symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and increased sensitivity to light or sound.Migraine is a common health condition, affecting around one in every five women and around one in every 15 men. They usually begin in early adulthood.


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A milium cyst is small, white bump that typically appears on the nose and cheeks. These cysts are often found in groups, and in these cases are called milia. The cysts occur when keratin becomes trapped beneath the surface of the skin. Keratin is a strong protein that is typically found in skin tissues, hair, and nail cells.

Milia can occur in people of all ages, but they’re most common in newborns. They’re typically found on the face, eyelids, and cheeks. Milia are often confused with a condition called Epstein pearls, which involves the appearance of harmless white-yellow cysts on a newborn’s gums and mouth. Milia are also often inaccurately referred to as “baby acne.”Keep reading to learn more about milia as well as their causes and what you can do to treat them.

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Cuts: A cut is an area of severed skin that has been penetrated with a sharp edge, such as a knife, a small tool or the edge of a sheet of paper (paper cuts are also painful). The wound will often bleed and have slightly dehiscent wound edges.Grazes or abrasions: A usually harmless abrasion of the upper skin layers that occurs after falling on knees, hands or elbows, or scratching over a rough surface with some skin coming off subsequently. Abrasions can be painful since the injury often extends to the many fine nerve endings subjacent to the skin.

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Minor skin wounds often occur as the result of unanticipated trauma and may include lacerations, abrasion (grazes), blisters and more serious wounds such as skin tears and bites. In many instances the skin may only require protection from further injury and can therefore be treated in the home with due regard for managing the risk of infection. In other cases the advice of a doctor is preferred, especially when the wound is deep and there may be damage to underlying structures such as nerves.

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Moles are growths on the skin that are usually brown or black. Moles can appear anywhere on the skin, alone or in groups.Most moles appear in early childhood and during the first 25 years of a person's life. It is normal to have between 10-40 moles by adulthood.As the years pass, moles usually change slowly, becoming raised and/or changing color. Sometimes, hairs develop in the mole. Some moles may not change at all, while others may slowly disappear over time

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Mosquito bites are the itchy bumps that appear after mosquitoes use their mouthparts to puncture your skin and feed on your blood. The bump usually clears up on its own in a few days. Occasionally a mosquito bite causes a large area of swelling, soreness and redness. This type of reaction, most common in children, is sometimes referred to as skeeter syndrome.

Bites from mosquitoes carrying certain viruses or parasites can cause severe illness. Infected mosquitoes in many parts of the world transmit West Nile virus to humans. Other mosquito-borne infections include yellow fever, malaria and some types of brain infection (encephalitis).

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Motion sickness is the feeling you get when the motion you sense with your inner ear is different from the motion you visualize. It is a common condition that occurs in some people who travel by car, train, airplane or boat. Many people suffer from this condition if they ride on a roller coaster or other similar amusement park rides. Motion sickness progresses from a feeling of uneasiness to sweating and/or dizziness. This is usually quickly followed by nausea and/or vomiting

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Mouth ulcers — also known as canker sores — are normally small, painful lesions that develop in your mouth or at the base of your gums. They can make eating, drinking, and talking uncomfortable. Women, adolescents, and people with a family history of mouth ulcers are at higher risk for developing mouth ulcers.

Mouth ulcers aren’t contagious and usually go away within one to two weeks. However, if you get a canker sore that is large or extremely painful or if it lasts for a long time without healing, you should seek the advice of a doctor.

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MS affects the central nervous system (CNS), but exactly why is happens is unclear.

In the CNS, nerve fibers are surrounded by a myelin sheath, which protects them. Myelin also helps the nerves conduct electrical signals quickly and efficiently. In MS, the myelin sheath disappears in multiple areas, leaving a scar, or sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis means "scar tissue in multiple areas."

The areas where there is no myelin or a lack of myelin are called plaques or lesions. As the lesions get worse, nerve fibers can break or become damaged. As a result, the electrical impulses from the brain do not flow smoothly to the target nerve.

When there is no myelin, the fibers cannot conduct the electrical impulses at all. The messages from the brain to the muscles cannot be transmitted.

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Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare, degenerative neurological disorder affecting your body's involuntary (autonomic) functions, including blood pressure, breathing, bladder function and muscle control.

Formerly called Shy-Drager syndrome, MSA shares many Parkinson's disease-like symptoms, such as slow movement, rigid muscles and poor balance.

Treatment includes medications and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms, but there is no cure. The condition progresses gradually and eventually leads to death.

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An acute (sudden, shortlived) viral illness that usually presents with inflammation of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid glands. A child with mumps often looks like a chipmunk with a full mouth due to the swelling of the parotids (the salivary glands near the ears).

Mumps can also cause inflammation of other tissues, most frequently the covering and substance of the central nervous system (meningoencephalitis), the pancreas (pancreatitis) and, after adolescence, the ovary (oophoritis) and the testis (orchitis). The testis is particularly susceptible to damage from mumps; the damage can lead to infertility.

Together with the likes of measles and chickenpox, mumps was once considered one of the inevitable infectious diseases of childhood. Since a mumps vaccine became available in 1967, the incidence of mumps has declined in the U.S., but there are still many underimmunized populations (for example, more blacks than whites have not yet been immunized).

Treatment is with rest and non-aspirin pain relievers to ease pain in swollen areas. Rarely, mumps can cause a form of meningitis, in which case hospitalization may be needed. Prevention is by immunization with the vaccine.

The origin of the word mumps is not clear. It may have to do with the English usage, now obsolete, of "mump" to mean a grimace. More probably, mumps comes from a colder climate, Iceland, where mumpa meant to fill the mouth too full.

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An involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax. When we use the muscles such as those of our arms and legs that can voluntarily be controlled, they alternately contract and relax as we move our limbs. Muscles that support our head, neck, and trunk contract similarly in a synchronized fashion to maintain our posture. A muscle (or even a few fibers of a muscle) that involuntarily (without consciously willing it) contracts is called a "spasm." If the spasm is forceful and sustained, it becomes a cramp. Muscle cramps can last anywhere from a few seconds to a quarter of an hour, and occasionally longer. It is not uncommon for a cramp to recur multiple times until it finally goes away. The cramp may involve a part of a muscle, the entire muscle, or several muscles that usually act together, such as those that flex adjacent fingers. Some cramps involve the simultaneous contraction of muscles that ordinarily move body parts in opposite directions. Muscle cramps are very common and become increasingly frequent with age. Any muscle under voluntary control (skeletal muscle) can cramp. The legs and feet, and particularly the calf (the classic "charley horse"), are especially subject to cramps.

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Muscle aches, or myalgia, are extremely common. Almost everybody has experienced discomfort in their muscles at some point.

Because there is muscle tissue in nearly all parts of the body, this type of pain can be felt practically anywhere…

 

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If you have ever played sports, chances are you have experienced a muscle strain injury. Even if you aren't an athlete, muscle strains are some of the most common injuries; however, this type of injury is often confused with a sprain, so let's start by clarifying the difference.

A strain is an injury that affects the muscle or the tendon. The tendon is the tissue that connects muscle to bone.
A sprain is an injury that affects a ligament. A ligament is connective tissue joining bones together.
In this lesson, we're specifically concerned with muscle strains, which can come in different types: the muscle itself can partially or completely tear, or the tendons can partially or completely tear. In any case, it's painful. You may also hear a strain referred to as a pulled muscle.

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Bones give people shape. They hold the body upright, and also protect organs like the heart and the kidneys. They store the minerals calcium and phosphorus, and also contain bone marrow, where new blood cells are made.


There are different types of muscles and joints, each with different functions.


Skeletal muscle is muscle that you can consciously control. When your brain tells a muscle to contract, it shortens, pulling one bone towards another across a joint. Muscles work in pairs – when one shortens, a corresponding muscle lengthens. Physical activity maintains or increases the strength of skeletal muscles.


Smooth muscle sits in and around blood vessels and organs. You can’t consciously control smooth muscle. It helps regulate your blood pressure, airways and digestion.


The heart is made of special muscle called cardiac muscle. You can’t control it consciously. It contracts to make your heart beat.


Joints in the arms and legs are synovial joints which means they have fluid in them (synovial fluid) so bones can move over each other.


Joints in the spine and pelvis are cartilaginous joints – they provide more stability and less movement.


There are also fibrous joints that allow no movement at all – just stability. You have fibrous joints in your skull.

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One of a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement. The muscles of the heart and some other involuntary muscles are also affected in some forms of muscular dystrophy, and a few forms involve other organs as well.

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The term “massage therapy” includes many techniques, and the type of massage given usually depends on your needs and physical condition.Massage therapy dates back thousands of years. References to massage appear in ancient writings from China, Japan, India, and EgyptIn general, massage therapists work on muscle and other soft tissue to help you feel better.In Swedish massage, the therapist uses long strokes, kneading, deep circular movements, vibration, and tapping.Sports massage combines techniques of Swedish massage and deep tissue massage to release chronic muscle tension. It’s adapted to the needs of athletes.Myofascial trigger point therapy focuses on trigger points—areas that are painful when pressed and are associated with pain elsewhere in the body.Massage therapy is sometimes done using essential oils as a form of aromatherapy.

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Each of us is comprised of a physical body and an energetic body. We are physical which is how we live our lives in the physical world and the fuel for this is our energy! For thousands of years man has been aware of the energy centers in the body which have come to be known in our modernity as Chakras. One does not need to have a set of beliefs or a dogma found in religions or other forms of spiritual practices in order to work with the Chakra System. We are physical and we are energy. What has proven to be useful, helpful, and healing is balancing, clearing and elevating the chakra system through meditation, chakra balancing work, breath work, and yoga. All of these modalities are worthy.


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Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. The term malnutrition covers 2 broad groups of conditions. One is ‘undernutrition’—which includes stunting (low height for age), wasting (low weight for height), underweight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies or insufficiencies (a lack of important vitamins and minerals). The other is overweight, obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases (such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and cancer)

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Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors that come together in a single individual. These metabolic factors include insulin resistance, hypertension (high blood pressure), cholesterol abnormalities, and an increased risk for blood clotting. Affected individuals are most often overweight or obese. An association between certain metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease has been known since the 1940s.

Metabolic syndrome is considered to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance refers to the diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in promoting the transport of the sugar glucose, from blood into muscles and other tissues. Type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance.Metabolic syndrome is also known as syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, or dysmetabolic syndrome.


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Menorrhagia is the medical term for menstrual periods with abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding. Although heavy menstrual bleeding is a common concern, most women don't experience blood loss severe enough to be defined as menorrhagia.

With menorrhagia, you can't maintain your usual activities when you have your period because you have so much blood loss and cramping. If you dread your period because you have such heavy menstrual bleeding, talk with your doctor. There are many effective treatments for menorrhagia.


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MCV stands for mean corpuscular volume. There are three main types of corpuscles (blood cells) in your blood–red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. An MCV blood test measures the average size of your red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells move oxygen from your lungs to every cell in your body. Your cells need oxygen to grow, reproduce, and stay healthy. If your red blood cells are too small or too large, it could be a sign of a blood disorder such as anemia, a vitamin deficiency, or other medical condition.

Other names: CBC with differential

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MPV stands for mean platelet volume. Platelets are small blood cells that are essential for blood clotting, the process that helps you stop bleeding after an injury. An MPV blood test measures the average size of your platelets. The test can help diagnose bleeding disorders and diseases of the bone marrow.

Other names: Mean Platelet Volume

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Mucus is a thick, slimy substance that coats and moistens certain parts of the body, including the nose, mouth, throat, and urinary tract. A small amount of mucus in your urine is normal. An excess amount may indicate a urinary tract infection (UTI) or other medical condition. A test called urinalysis can detect whether there is too much mucus in your urine.

Other names: microscopic urine analysis, microscopic examination of urine, urine test, urine analysis, UA

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Malaria is a serious, sometimes fatal, disease spread by mosquitoes and caused by a parasite. Malaria was a significant health risk in the U.S. until it was eliminated by multiple programs in the late 1940s. The illness presents with flu-like symptoms that include high fever and chills.

There are three necessary aspects to the malaria life cycle:

    The Anopheles mosquito carries the parasite and is where the parasite starts its life cycle.
    The parasite (Plasmodium) has multiple subspecies, each causing a different severity of symptoms and responding to different treatments.
    The parasite first travels to a human's liver to grow and multiply. It then travels in the bloodstream and infects and destroys red blood cells.

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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a type of staph bacteria that's become resistant to many of the antibiotics used to treat ordinary staph infections.Most MRSA infections occur in people who've been in hospitals or other health care settings, such as nursing homes and dialysis centers. When it occurs in these settings, it's known as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). HA-MRSA infections typically are associated with invasive procedures or devices, such as surgeries, intravenous tubing or artificial joints.

Another type of MRSA infection has occurred in the wider community — among healthy people. This form, community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA), often begins as a painful skin boil. It's spread by skin-to-skin contact. At-risk populations include groups such as high school wrestlers, child care workers and people who live in crowded condition


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Miscarriage is the loss of a pregnancy in the first 20 weeks. (In medical articles, you may see the term "spontaneous abortion" used in place of miscarriage.) About 10 to 20 percent of known pregnancies end in miscarriage, and more than 80 percent of these losses happen before 12 weeks.

This doesn't include situations in which you lose a fertilized egg before a pregnancy becomes established. Studies have found that 30 to 50 percent of fertilized eggs are lost before or during the process of implantation – often so early that a woman goes on to get her period at about the expected time.

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Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that damage your kidneys and decrease their ability to keep you healthy by doing the jobs listed. If kidney disease gets worse, wastes can build to high levels in your blood and make you feel sick. You may develop complications like high blood pressure, anemia (low blood count), weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage. Also, kidney disease increases your risk of having heart and blood vessel disease. These problems may happen slowly over a long period of time. Chronic kidney disease may be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure and other disorders. Early detection and treatment can often keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse. When kidney disease progresses, it may eventually lead to kidney failure, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to maintain life.

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